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FSU PAD 3003 - Chapter 8

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Chapter 8I. Program EvaluationA. Intro1. Operations research a. Use of statistics and mathematical modeling in decision makingB. Collecting Empirical data1. Surveysa. Open-ended b. Close ended 2. Field observations a. Participant observations- evaluators immerse themselves into programb. Non-participatoryC. Conduction evaluations and take holders1. Policy makers- represent elected officials2. Program sponsors- responsible for funding3. Evaluation sponsor4. Program managers- the administrators 5. Program targets-everyone who benefits from said program6. Snowball sampling - process of infiltrating a usually reserved organization by going through person after person until receiving required data.D. Obtaining stake Holder input1. Obtained by large in-depth interviews or focus group sessions2. SWOT analysis a. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threatsE. Types of Program Evaluation1. Needs assessment a. Assessing the scope of the social problem the program addresses2. Assessment of program theorya. Refers to the conceptual design of a programb. Programs impact theory-impact of program “x” on social condition “y”c. Sees how program operates3. Logic Model a. Organized in terms of program inputs, activities, outputs and out comes4. Assessment of program Processa. Extent to which a program services are reaching its targetsb. Coverage - level of participation by eligible targetsc. Bias- certain groups of target population are participating with either greater or less frequency. F. Program Impact Assessment1. Program outcome and impacta. Outcome - refers to change in a characteristic of target populationb. Impact - assumes that a change is result of programII. Experimentation and ConcernsA. Methods1. Randomized field experiment a. “Treatment group, Control Group”b. Equivalence- Equal distribution of characteristics through control group and target group 2. Quasi-experiment - assignment of individuals to a control group and target group are not not done randomlyB. Program Efficiency assessment 1. Cost Benefit Analysis - Program costs are compared to tangible and intangible program benefitsa. Expressed in a benefit-cost ratio2. Determining the value of intangible goods is often difficult3. Contingent Valuation a. Entails using surveys to ask people how much they would pay for a programb. Not effective because people would rather free ride.Chapter 9I. Public BudgetingA. Federal Budget Process1. The Budget and Accounting act of 1921a. Before president had no role in federal budgetary decisions.b. Created the Bureau of the Budget later replaced by the office of Management and budget. 2. The Taft-commission a. Created the Bureau of the Budget later replaced by the office of Management and budget. B. Types of Budget1. Line-item Budget a. Where money will be spent item by item2. Performance Budget - Money given if criteria is met a. Amount of work that’s done is measuredb. Quality of work donec. This impacts how much monies spent in the futured. Makes It easy for managers to defend their programs3. Zero-Based Budget a. Shows amount of work that can be done with existing or future budgetsb. Extremely beneficial when it comes to slashing or adding funds.4. PBBS a. Planning programs budgeting systemsb. Implements a cost benefit ratio that a program produces. c. The programs cost and benefits are weighed against alternative programs.C. Where the Money comes from1. Federala. Personal income taxes, capital gains taxesb. Corporate income taxes2. Statea. Some do personal and corporate taxesb. Consumption and sales tax3. Local (municipalities)a. Property taxesb. User fees on amenities D. Theories of Budgeting1. Social equitya. Different social philosophies have propounded impact on how resources are budgeted.2. Economic Perspective3. Political science perspective a. Budget is in interest oriented process in which decisions are made in context of who pays and who receives.b. Conflict over who’s individuals interests will prevail4. Public Administrationa. Economic, political, interjected with a notion of equity into budgetary decision-making process.Chapter 10I. Public Sector LeadershipA. Management Functions1. Organizational leaders must carry out specific managerial functions2. Planning-Determining what is to be done to accomplish a specific objective3. Organizing-formal arranging and balancing of activities, the determination of who will do what and assigning authority4. Directing- Assigning tasks, ordering, instructing 5. Coordinating: Integrating a schedule of activities so that the plans will be carried outon time6. Controlling- checking the progress of work, making adjustments and corrections7. Implementing- Accomplishing or fulfilling the purposes or ends of the work plan. B. Prevailing Leadership Theories1. Trait theory a. Embraces the idea that leaders are bornb. They possess certain innate characteristics that make them well suited for leadership like intelligence, confidence, integrity and diligence.2. Skills Theory a. While trait theory emphasizes personal characteristics the skills approach to leader ship is centered on human capital, whit 3 distinct types of skillsb. Technical skills- abilities and knowledge necessary to complete a taskc. Human skill-interpersonal skilld. Conceptual skill- ability to think critically and work with ideas3. Style Theory -a. Framed in terms of task-oriented behavior and relationship oriented behaviorb. Task behaviors deal exclusively with organizational goal attainmentc. Relationship behaviors deal with the aspect of managing empolyees.d. A manager who emphasis both is a team manager.e. Quality circles- consist of a small group of workers that perform similar tasks and meet frequently and willingly to solve work related problems4. Situational Leadership a. Is the science of how a leader must alter his or her approach based upon the circumstances. 5. Contingency theory a. Some leaders are better suited for certain situationsb. Task oriented leaders better serve in a stringent system like automobile production, while relationship leaders are better suited for advertisement, and selling the automobile. 6. Path goal theory a. Employee motivation is central to this theoryb. Theory defines 4 types of behaviors- Directive, Supportive, Achievement, Participative7. Transformational Leadership a. Goes a step further from Path Goal theory, stressing the inspiration a leader must draw in from his


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