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FSU PAD 3003 - Study Guide

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End of semester exam review sheet:1. Public Performance:a. Total Quality Managementa. Assumptions:i. Customer focus- the ultimate judge of qualityii. Continuous improvement- enhanced value to customer through new and improved products and service; reduced errors, defects and waste; improved responsiveness and cycle-time performance; improved productivity and effectiveness in the use of all resources iii. Top management commitment and leadership- requires a long term commitment from upper management iv. Empowerment and teamwork- empowerment involves a leadership approach whereby decision making authority is given to lower level employees; horizontal teamwork enables different functional groups within an organization to deal with external demands ; inter-organizational teamwork includes establishing work teams of suppliers, customers, and other external groups b. Functionsc. Definition: an enterprise lifestyle that emphasizes customer satisfaction, excellent service and rapid adjustment to address ever-changing customer needsb. Customer service orientationc. Levels of team work: vertical, horizontal, and inter-organizational d. Responsivenessa. Barriers-i. Interest group politics and captive bureaucracy: adhere to politics and don’t use feedback from citizensii. Expertise and information distortion: incorrect reproduction of objectively correct information from either conscious or deliberate alteration or unconscious manipulationiii. Specialized structure and parochialism: a major problem in an effective organization is to specialize and subdivide activities in such amanner that the psychological forces of identification will contribute to, rather than hinder, correct decision makingiv. Attribution error and management failure: people blame themselves rather than the management system v. Organizational entrapment and trained incapacity: the tendency to persist in a failing course of action in order to justify the allocation of prior resources to that course of action b. Value- brings government closer to its peoplec. Definition- the extent to which an organization promotes correspondence between the decisions of bureaucrats and the preferences of the community or the officeholders who are authorized to speak for the public e. Performance Improvement Indicatorsa. Input- reflects the quantity of resources appropriated to a government organization, service or program (i.e. department’s budget)b. Output- workload indicators, they reflect the amount of work done or the number of services provided by a government program (i.e. miles of roads cleaned)c. Outcome- these indicators capture the results of the services provided (i.e. percentage of clean streets)d. Efficiency- these examine the extent to which a public organization or program is performing in relation to service delivery costs (i.e. dollars spent for one mile of snow removal)i. Define and be able to use all of the above in some kind of examplef. Performance Measurementa. Including purposes beyond measurementi. Control-maintain management control ii. Budget- performance-based budgeting links performance measures with how much money a public agency receivesiii. Motivate- set performance goals to work towardiv. Promote- convey accomplishmentsv. Celebrate- celebrate organizational accomplishments with their staffvi. Learn and improve- make appropriate changes to improve an organizationb. How to design a performance measurement systemi. Identify a program to measureii. Designing a purpose statementiii. Classifying program inputs, outputs, outcomes and efficiency indicatorsiv. Setting performance targetsv. Monitoring performancevi. Reporting performance resultsvii. Concluding with analysis and actionc. Citizen-driven Management and performance measurement-based on the information collected, public managers identify weak areas within an organization and make corrective changes. Including citizens in performance measurement process can potentially reduce participatory lethargy, skepticism toward government, and the rift between the citizenry and public decision makers.d. Balanced scorecard- adopted in the private sector first, it allowed for significant improvements in organizational performance. It offers a balanced methodology for assessing the effectiveness with which the organization fulfills its vision and strategy. It aligns performance in 4 categories: financial management, customer focus, internal business processes, and learning and growth e. Bureau-pathology- public organizations are facing increasing pressures to perform at a high level, but several sources of tension may undermine efforts to improve performancef. Privatization- refers to the complete transfer of a government function to the private sectorg. Contracting- private organization works on behalf of the government and they still have some measure of control over the private organization 2. Program Evaluation:a. Define- is the use of social science research methods in an effort to determine whether a public program is worthwhileb. Collect datai. Types: surveys, in-depth interviews, focus groups, field observations, experimentation, and existing data1. Surveys: advantages: inexpensive, easy to administer, anonymous, easy to process, reduced time pressure; disadvantage: impersonal and structured, over-interpretation, time-consuming, low response rates, distortionc. Conducting evaluationsi. Role of the stakeholder-1. policy makers- elected officials who determine whether a program is created2. program sponsors- responsible for a program’s funding3. evaluation sponsors- initiates and or authorizes the evaluation4. program manager and practitioners- responsible for directing or supervising some aspect of the program’s day-to-day operations while practitioners implement policies and administer a program’s services5. program targets- the direct recipients of a program’s servicesii. Evaluation types1. Needs- determine if and to what extent a social condition or problem exists2. Theory- conceptual design of a program3. Process- centers on the extent to which a program’s services are reaching its targets4. Impact- identify measurable outcomes5. Efficiency- whether the money and resources put toward a program are well spent 3. Public Budgetinga. Budgeting Process- Each February the president presents the U.S. Congress with a budget request which details the amount of money needed by the cabinet-level agencies for the upcoming fiscal year. The following


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