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FSU CCJ 3644 - Second Exam Material

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2/6/13CCJ3644Second Exam MaterialChapter 3Sales Related Crimes• These offenses have four things in common:o They occurred during the course of the offender’s worko The offender was engaged in the role of a workero In terms of setting, the offenses occurred in a workplace settingo On one level or another, each of them involved occupations where employees were selling goods or servicesChapters 3-6 Organizational Chart• Occupational crime  small businesses, professionals, employees  medical crime, legal crime, academic crime, religious crime.Retail Crime and Service Fraud• Retail businesses like corporations engage in many deceptive and illegal activities.o Fraudulent advertisingo Illegal pricing practiceso Sale of fraudulently representing merchandiseo Purchase and resale of stolen goods• Caveat Emptor- let the buyer beware; has traditionally regulated the relationship between buyers and sellers.State of Florida• Shopliftingo First offense < $300 Misdemeanor charge Up to 1 year in jail• The value of the theft will determine the severity of the punishment• Diversion program upon first offense = guaranteed dismissal (99.9% of the time)CBC video “the secret world of shoplifting”• The culture makes us want to spend even when we don’t have money.• Shoplifters can be anyone; it doesn’t discriminate.• They steal for different reasons: thrill-seekers, the poor, feed an addiction, professional boosters, management, and employees. Employee Crime• Employee theft- unauthorized taking, control or transfer of money and/or property of the work organization by an employee during the course of employment.• Employee theft occurs on a number of different levels:o Pilfering refers to petty thefto Chiseling refers to cheating or swindlingo Fraud is theft through misrepresentationo Embezzlement refers to the destruction or fraudulent appropriation of another’s money which has been entrusted to one’s careCCJ36442/8/13Employee Crime• Internal Theft (Theft By Employees) is thought to make up over 50% of companies losses.• Alternative forms of employee crime:o Not all employee crime against the employer takes the form of theft. Employees may commit sabotage:• Conceal their own errors• To gain time off• To express their contempt and anger with their work and employero Theft of ideas, designs and formulas are another form of employee crimeSome Factors in Employee Theft• Company property refers mainly to basic, bulky components and tools.• Property of uncertain ownership- small inexpensive items like pens, pencils, nails, bolts, drill bits, etc.• Personal property- monogrammed clothing, wallets, jewelry, personal modified tools, etc.• Research has found:o More likely to be young males, and unmarriedo More likely to steal from large organizations than small oneso Employees’ dissatisfaction= higher rates of employee thefto Opportunity is a major determinant of employee theft Those with greater access to things worth stealing are the most likely to do so.Employee Theft in Retail Crime• Deceptive practices:o Manipulation of productso Coupon stuffingo Sweetheart dealso Collection of taxes on nontaxable items (e.g. labor)o Wage theft ($ from register, goods, or credit card information)Employee Theft in the Retail System• Retail system: setting where customers purchase various types of products• There are several varieties of employee theft in retail settings:o Overcharging: employees charge customers more than they should haveo Shortchanging: employees don’t giver customers all of their change and pocket the difference.o Coupon stuffing: employees steal coupons and use them later.o Credits for nonexistent returns: employees give credit for returns to collaborators.o Theft of production supplies and raw materials: employees steal items used to produce goods in retail settings.o Embezzlement: employees steal money from an account to which they have access.o Over-order supplies: employees order more supplies than are needed and keep the supplies that were not needed.o Theft of credit card information: employees steal customers’ credit card information.o Theft of goods: employees steal the items the retail setting is trying to sell.o Theft of money from the cash register: employees take money out of the register.o Sweetheart deals: employees give friends and family members unauthorized discounts.• Prevention Strategies for employee theft:o Important strategies: aim to import only the best types of employees, who are less likely to engage in employee theft. Background checks, drug tests, employee screening instruments, and credit checks.o Internal strategies: include policies and practices performed within the retail setting in an effort to prevent employee theft. Random inspections: checking cash registers, employee lockers, and other locations for evidence of wrongdoing Audits: strategies in which supervisors review cash distribution patterns of employees. Developing rules that guide returns: focus on ways to limit the possibility that employees misuse return policies. Developing internal control policies: set of policies and procedures that provide reasonable assurance that an organization’s assets and information are protected.o Technological strategies: the use of various forms of technology to prevent employee theft in retail settings. Video cameras, Closed-circuited television.o Organizational culture strategies: aim to promote a sense of organizational culture that would inhibit theft.o Awareness strategies: focus on increasing awareness among employees about various issues related to employee theft. Want them to be exposed to: Anonymous tip lines, new hire orientation, formal codes of conduct, bulletin board posters related to theft prevention, periodic lectures on theft and the consequences of theft, loss prevention compensation programs.Entertainment Services System Crimes• Entertainment services system: describes those settings where customers consume or purchase various forms of services designed at least partially for entertainment or pleasure.Restaurant Industry• 4 types of crimes committed by the restaurant industry:o Food tamperingo Violating health & cleanliness codeso False advertising to describe foods, & o Short weighting• Crimes by workers against the restaurant:o Eating restaurants food without payingo Giving food/drinks away for freeo Selling food at a lower price o Taking items


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