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KIN 2500 – Introduction to the Human Body – ANSWER KEY Supplemental Instruction !1 SI: Matthew Landry [email protected] Office Hours Spring 2014: Monday and Wednesday (10:30-11:20am) and Thursdays (8:30-9:20am) in 39 Allen Match the correct word with its definition: 1. Anatomy C 2. Physiology D 3. Auscultation G 4. Dissection B 5. Palpation F 6. Inspection A 7. Percussion E a. Observing the body for any obvious changes from normal. b. The cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships c. The study of the structures of the body d. Science that deals with the function of an organism e. Tapping on the surface of the body with fingertips and listening to the resulting echo f. Touching the body surfaces with the hands g. Listening to body sounds, often with the aid of a stethoscopeLife Processes: List and describe the six important life processes of humans: • Metabolism (The sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body.) • Responsiveness (The body’s ability to detect and respond to changes in its internal or external environment.) • Movement (Motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even structures within cells.) • Growth (An increase in body size due to the increase in size of existing cells, number of cells, or amount of material surrounding cells.) • Differentiation (Process specialized cells go through to become specialized cells.) • Reproduction (Refers to the formation of new cells for growth, repair, or replacement or the production of a new individual) Organization of the Human BodyKIN 2500 – Introduction to the Human Body – ANSWER KEY Supplemental Instruction !2 Chemical Includes atoms and molecules (DNA, glucose) Cellular Molecules combine to form cells (Muscle Cell, Blood Cell) Tissue Group of cells that work together to preform a common function (Connective Tissue, Nervous Tissue) Organ Different types of tissues are joined together (Stomach, Heart) System Related organs with a common function (Digestive System) Organismal All the parts of the human body functioning together Anatomical Position (Definition and Description): The standard position of reference for the description of anatomical structures. The subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and eyes facing directly forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms facing forward. Reclining Position: There are two terms used to describe a reclining body. If the body is lying face down, it is in the prone position. If the body is lying face up, it is in the supine position. Anatomical Terminology Anatomical Name Common Name Cephalic Head • Cranial Skull • Facial Face • Frontal Forehead • Temporal Temple • Orbital Eye • Otic Ear • Buccal Cheek • Nasal Nose • Oral Mouth • Mental ChinKIN 2500 – Introduction to the Human Body – ANSWER KEY Supplemental Instruction !3 • Occipital Base of Skull Cervical Neck Trunk ---- • Sternal Breastbone • Mammary Breast • Umbilical Naval • Coxal Hip • Inguinal Groin • Thoracic Chest • Abdominal Abs • Pelvic Pelvis • Pubic Pubis • Scapular Shoulder Blade • Vertebral Spinal Cord • Dorsal Back • Lumbar Lower Back Upper Limbs ---- • Acromial Shoulder • Axillary Armpit • Brachial Arm (Upper) • Antecubital Elbow (Front) • Antebrachial Forearm • Olecranal/ Cubital Elbow (Back) • Carpal Wrist Manual Hand • Palmar/Volar Palm • Digital/Digits/Phalangeal Fingers • Pollex Thumb • Dorsum Back of Hand Lower Limbs --- • Femoral Thigh • Patellar Knee • Crural Front Side of Lower Leg • Sacral Base of Spine • Coocygeal Tailbone • Gluteal Buttock • Perineal Anus • Popliteal Back of Knee • Sural Back Side (Calf) of Lower Leg Pedal Foot • Tarsal Ankle • Digital/Digits/Phalangeal ToesKIN 2500 – Introduction to the Human Body – ANSWER KEY Supplemental Instruction !4 • Dorsum Top of Foot • Hallux Big Toe • Plantar Sole • Calcaneal Heel Planes of the Body: • Parasagittal separates Left and Right • Frontal separates Anterior and Posterior • Midsagittal separates Left and Right (Through the middle. Even sections) • Transverse separates Superior and Inferior • Oblique Lies at an angle to all other planes Directional Terms Superior Towards the head Intermediate Between two structures Inferior Towards the feet Ipsilateral On the same side of the midline as another structure Rostral Relating to the nose and mouth region Contralateral On the opposite side of the midline as another structure Caudal Relating to the tail or posterior of the body Proximal Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk Anterior Near the front of the body Distal Further from the attachment of a limb to the trunk Posterior Near the back of the body Superficial Toward or on the surface of the body Ventral Toward the belly Deep Away from the surface of the bodyKIN 2500 – Introduction to the Human Body – ANSWER KEY Supplemental Instruction !5 9 Regions of the Abdominal Pelvic Cavity Right Hypochondriac Epigastric Left Hypochondriac Right Lumbar Umbilical Region Left Lumbar Right Inguinal Pubic Region Left Inguinal The Body Cavities: 1.The Cranial Cavity and Vertebral Canal a. Formed by cranial bones b. What organ(s) does it contain? Brain and spinal cord c. It is continuous with the vertebral spinal canal d. What are meninges? 3 Layers of Membranes “Protective Tissue” 2. The Thoracic Cavity a. Formed by Ribs, sternum, thoracic portion of spinal cord b. How many pleural cavities are there? Two c. The mediastinum is the central portion of the thoracic cavity It contains all the thoracic cavity organs except for: Lungs Contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels d. What does the pericardial cavity surround? Heart e. What muscle separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity? Diaphragm Dorsal Toward the back External Toward the outside of a structure Medial Nearer to the midline of the body Internal Toward the inside of a structure Lateral Farther from the midline of the body Cranial Relating to the skull or head; towards the headKIN 2500 –

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