HOFSTRA PSY 001 - Trait Theory of Personality

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Reduce, simplify, and break down statistical calculationsTells us related factors within a larger variable sampleWhat questions tend to have a similar response pattern?□How many basic/primary personality traits are there?□Ex. Factor Analysis TestFactor analysis○Trait theory: believe that personality is a series of dimensional traits•Those with high levels of extroversion are friendly, outgoing, sociable, lively1)Extroversion1.Those with high levels of neuroticism are emotional, reactive, stress and anxiety prone1)Neuroticism2.Opposite of a "good citizen" type personality: one who has low levels of psychoticisma)A psychotic might be anarchical, worse citizens, worse at following rulesb)High levels of psychoticism exhibit hostility, impulsivity, "tough mindedness", not soft or sentimental, less "rule conscious"1)Psychoticism3.3 Traits are Independent of each other: there is no correlation between the tendency of these traitsCome to a theory that there are 3 broad traits in personality: the Giant 3○PEN (Psychoticism/Extroversion/Neuroticism) Model○Hans Eysenck (Chapter 12.2)•Extroversion - people are generally more socialNeuroticism - at greater risk for anxietyPsychoticism - more at risk for criminal/aggressive behavior and artistic behaviorGenerally, yes: they tend to relate○Are they valid/meaningful/predictable?•Introverts have higher average baseline cortical arousalWhen we are under-stimulated, we feel bored, tired, fatigued◊When we are over-stimulated, we feel stressed◊Extroverts have lower average baseline cortical arousalDifferences in average baseline cortical arousal define extroverts and introverts□Ascending Reticular Activation System:Extroversion based in the Cerebral Cortex○Eysenck believved there were biological underpinnings for these traits•Optimal Level of cortical arousalArousalExtroversion LevelsExtrovertsIntrovertsIntroverts require less stimulation to be satisfied, because their average level of cortical arousal is closer to the optimal level of cortical arousal (in order to become satisfied)Extroverts are more likely to be smokers and do drugs that stimulate (stimulants, such as cocaine, adderall), more likely to have risk-seeking behaviorExtroverts require more stimulation to be satisfired and seek out high stimulation activities: ex. Talking to other peoplePeople with ADHD are essentially extreme extroverts: they behave hyper because they are seeking huge levels of stimulation in the environment; Ritalin and Adderall are extreme stimulants which bring them much closer to optimal levels of cortical arousalExtroversion and neuroticism observed in chimpsPossibly biologiccally necessary○Hereditary component to 3 different traits•Extroversion1.Neuroticism2.Openness (Open-mindedness)3.Conscientiousness4.These traits are relatively independenti.Trait proponents argue that over the aggregate, traits predict behavior well1)Relatively effective at predicting long-term behaviors2)Walter Mischel criticized the predictability of traits, and research confirms that correlation between scores and behavior is lowii.Agreeableness5.Big 5 Theory: several contributors•Trait Theory of Personality: 4/7/14Monday, April 07, 20146:38 PM Psychology Page

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