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Subjective conscious experience: certain thoughts/cognitions/images1.Physiological arousal: Changes in the body that accompany emotions2.Overt expressions of behavior: observable changes3.Three different component:•Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, weating, etc. Adrenal hormones released (Amygdala, limbic system)Activation of the autonomic nercous system○Could explain negative emotions but not positivePossible evolutionary alarm: flight/fight/freeze response○Physiological-autonomic arousal•HappinessSadnessAngerFearSurpriseTend to be cross-cultural□People who are blind from birth still make typical facial expressionsMay be evolved: innate/instinctual□DisgustBased on observations about universal, non-taught, distinct facial expressions○Some believe there are about 6 "primary emotions"•Primates have species-specific facial expressions1.Disgust may have indicated danger, and may also have (and does today) conveyed social judgment1)Gives option to rectify or fighta)Anger: conveying aggression/violent potential, showing disapproval2)Surprise: something different3)Sadness: conveys need for support4)Happiness: social approval5)Fear: danger6)Global innate reactions to common stimuli:i.Facial gestures may have been communicative prior to development of verbal language, therefore emotions developed2.Evolutionary Psych model of emotions1.Stimulus→Autonomic Arousal→Conscious experience of emotion1.Emotion as a result of perceiving autonomic arousali.Implies that each emotion has a different/unique autonomic "feel" that we can perceiveii."I feel afraid because I tremble"2.James-Lange Theory of Emotion (William James and Carl Lange)2.Ex. Exercise→Mimics autonomic arousal→/→emotional responsei.Critique of James-Lange: How do you explain autonomic arousal without "emotional" perception component?1.Stimulus→Arousal/Conscious Experience of emotion (simultaneously)i."The noise makes me tremble AND feel afraid"2.Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion (Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard)3.Autonomic arousali.There are two factors of emotion:1.Schachter Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (Stanley Schachter)4.Emotions: 5/7/14Saturday, May 10, 201410:06 PM Psychology Page 1Autonomic arousali.Cognitive interpretation based on contextual cluesii."I hear a noise, I should be alone, therefore there is something threatening, SO I'm afraid"i.Stimulus→Arousal→Cognitive interpretation→Emotion (cognitivally interpreted)2.May be the basis for emotional disorders (cognitive therapy): if you can't successfully interpret cognitionCombination of physiology and MindWhat happens if you can't recognize your emotions?○May be important to have cognitive ability to express/explain emotions, but reflexiveemotions can still occur - cognitive interpretation is just broken or difficultWhat if you lack cognitive abilities but still display emotions?○ Psychology Page

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HOFSTRA PSY 001 - Emotions

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