HOFSTRA PSY 001 - Intelligence and Personality

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Consistency - thinking, behavior, feeling1.Personality - comes from within2.Individual differences3.Characteristic patterns of thinking, behaving and feeling○Why are we different from one another?•Psychoanalytic psychology○What drives our personalities are unconscious motivationsWrote about unconscious motivation○Topographical Model of the Mind: comparable to an iceberg○Sigmund Freud•Conscious1.Conscious mindPre-conscious2.Not immediately conscious of,But can be recalled/accessedIf neededUnconscious (Sub-conscious)3.We can't access it -outside our level of awarenessContains the bulk of our mindNeed for food, need for sexual gratification, need for aggression1)Collection of primal urges - "A boiling cauldren of urges"i.Driven by Pleasure Principle: only cares about getting needs/desires fulfilledii.Id always remains unconsciousiii.Id "It" - Only part of the mind that is present at birth1.Has awareness of the external worldi.Serves the needs of the Id, but keeps reality in mindii.Guided by the Reality Principle: obtains desires within limits of external realityiii.Ego "I" - part of Id breaks away and forms its own structure2.Internal representations of right/wrong moralityi.Guilt is a punishment for violation of the Superego1)Guided by the Morality Principleii.Personality quirks are conflicts between 3 structuresiii.Superego ("Above I") - Final structure to develop3.Structural Model of the Mind•Sexuality changes as we develop□We are born as sexual beingsFreud called the sex drive the "libido"Stages of Psychosexual Development○Infants put everything in their mouths1)Infant children get sexual gratification (psychologically) from utilizing the mouthi.If oral sexuality is frustrated enough, it can lead to oral fixation later in life1)Parents place restrictions on what and when children can put things in their mouth, and interfere with infantile oral sexuali tyii.Oral Stage: sexual desire resides in the mouth (birth - 18 months)1.Potty training is a direct assault on anal sexualityi.Anal retentive personalities (perfectionist, rigid) result from parents being too strict during potty trainingii.Anal Stage: (18 months -3 years)2.Boys and girls wish to receive sexual gratification from the use of their penisi.Boys develop unconscious castration anxiety from father1)Toward the end of the stage, boy gives up the mother as a love object and identifies with the father to be able to obtain a l ove interest similar to the mother2)Oedipal Complex: Boys develop unconscious, sexualized feelings toward the mother, and unconscious hostility (rivalry) toward fatherii.Girls blame the mother for their lack of penis because she is a fellow female and primary caretaker1)Girl sexualizes her feelings toward the father because he has a penis2)She is eventually drained by this intense hostility and relinquishes the rivalry with the mothera)Child is especially hostile toward the mother3)Elektra Complex: Girls wants pleasure from their penis, but realize it is missingiii.The bulk of our major personality characteristics are formed at the end of the phallic stageiv.Phallic Stage (3 - 6 years)3.Freud's Theory of Development•Intelligence and Personality: 4/2/14Wednesday, April 02, 20145:22 PM Psychology Page 1Much potential for emotional trauma induced by incorrect developmental sequence in the Phallic Stage1)The bulk of our major personality characteristics are formed at the end of the phallic stageiv.Sexuality/personality development is on holdi.Latency Stage (6 years - puberty)4.Normal sexuality: penile-vaginal sex, according to Freud: everything else is a deviation (as a result of disrupted/improper development)i.Genital Stage (puberty - adulthood5.One exception: Little HansGenerated ideas from observations on adult patients○Not formal case studies○Freud's primary research method was case study•Isn't testifiable/falsifiable○Virtually no empirical evidence to back up○Not good for predictions○Said environment is sole factor in development○Thought adulthood was static, just a repetition of childhood○Problems:• Psychology Page

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HOFSTRA PSY 001 - Intelligence and Personality

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