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8/22/12Sociology: “the study of society”, “study of” and the Latin socius “being with others”8/27/12Perspective:1. Every human and every human creation has perspective/some level of subjectivity2. We have to work to see our own perspective3. Without conscious attention to our perspective, it looks like “COMMON SENSE” or “just the way things are”4. Ideas that stand part form our own perspective, or from the mainstream perspective seem BIASEDAllan Johnson:Born 1946Grew up around civil rights, women’s rights and Vietnam warWorked as sociology professor for 30 yearsSpeaks about social inequality, men’s violence against womenKEY CONCEPTS TO READING:“The Forest, The Trees and The One Thing”individualism, inequality, racism, sexism, privilege, relationship to individual society, social system, social positions, paths of resistance.Americans society’s dominant lens is individualisticIndividualist perspective separates us from each other and decreases our sense of community responsibilities.Individualism conceals the influence of larger social forces – creates “BLIND SPOT”Sociologists focus is on the INDIVIDUAL in society – shows us the “bigger picture”PRIVILEGE and OPPRESSION:1. Privilege is invisible to those who do not have it2. Privilege and oppression are directly related3. Privilege and oppression are NOT opposites, a person can be both privilege and oppressedi. Example: Oprah4. Content with the status quo is a privilege in itself5. Apathy is a privilege of a privilege9/5/12Barbara EhrenreichLabor is underpaidWork is gendered and racedDEFINING ECONOMIC SYSTEMSCapitalism:Private ownershipPersonal profitsNo government interventionSocialism:Public ownershipCollective goalsCentralized decision-makingMOST NATION ARE MIXED ECONOMIESDemocratic socialism: a type of mixed economySome private ownershipGovernment distribution of some essential goods and servicesFree electionsPrimary Ex’s: Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Gr. Britain, FranceA Brief History of the Industrial Revolution:Capitalism, Sociology and TechnologyTechnology changed the home, the work place, family, etc.People left farms, machines can do labor, go to CITYCapitalism and technology develop “hand in hand”Workers suffered, child laborMarx, Weber, Durkheim: wrote about the effects of the Industrial RevolutionWEBER: How did Capitalism Develop?Pre Cap: “I work to eat”STAGE 1: Martin Luther and the Protestant ReformationMy work is a vocation/callingApple Ex. devotees, disciples, higher purposeSTAGE 2: John Calvin and PredestinationSalvation Panic: “How do I know I’m saved?.. WEALTH”MARX: Work and CapitalismWork = HumanCapitalism deskills jobsCompetition among workers (Johnson)Logic of Capitalism = cheaper and cheapter labor, exploitation of resources (people and nature)Work in Capitalism: Alienation?Ramifications: Cheaper products (but loss of jobs), income and humanity9/10/12Globalization: a complex process by which the world and it international economy are becoming more and more intertwined.Connects the world through business, travel, immigration, education, health issues and production of goodsGlobal Stratification: the hierarchical arrangement of nations on the basis of their control over basic resourcesMain Concepts in “The Nanny Chain:”Globalization of mothering and loveGlobal care chainFreud’s theory of displacementMarx’s concept of surplus value3 Lenses: Primordialist, sunshine modernist, critical modernist“The way we use globalization is a blind spot”9/17/12Culture: The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next. Made up of nonmaterial culture and material culture.Non material culture: a groups way of thinking and doing, includes gestures, language, values, norms, sanctionsGestures: the way which people use their bodies to communicate with each otherLanguage: a system of shared symbols, the meanings of which are collectively held.“FOP’: a man who is overly concerned with his appearance and clothes aka metrosexual.Values: the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.Norms: expectations of “right behavior”Folkways (informal): ex. ElevatorMores (formal): ex. Stealing, murder, rapeOnes persons folkway is another persons moresSanctions: expressions of approval or disapprovalPositive Sanction: ex. ComplimentsNegative Sanctions: ex. TicketsMoral Holiday’s: when mores are liftedMaterial Culture: all that we make or useMaterial objects that distinguish a group of peopleEx. Clothing, jewelry, furnitureReligion:Modern Functional Equivalents to ReligionMusic: Justin BieberTV: Reality showsSportsConsumerism1980-90’s: rapid acceleration of products, spending and accumulation9/24/12Socialization: the process in which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given culture and learn to function as member’s of that society.Deviance: The violation of norms or rules or expectationAgents of Socialization: people or groups that affect our self-concept attitude, behaviors, or other orientationsFamilyReligionSchoolFormal: you go to school to be taught skillsInformal: Meeting diff people, learning new view points and different ways of thinkingSocial Class Function: Children that go to a poor school, get a very different education that kids who get a higher education. People in higher places have connectionsPeer GroupMass MediaWorkSocialization Through Childhood:Board Games –Candy Land: ages 3-6Learn to take turnsFollow the rulesElement of luck and lifeMonopoly: ages 8 and upValues: money is important, capitalism, greed, you cant have things unless you have money, property, learning individualism, competitionThe Game of Life: ages 9 and upValues: get a car, have kids, learning about gender, marriage is valuable, heterosexuality is important, the job you get is valuable, college/education is important.If you do badly in the game, you end up in the poor house. If you do well, you end up in a large house.Risk: 10 and up“The Game of Global Domination” “Win the Game and You Win the World”You learn: power, aggressiveness, militarism,Mall Madness: ages 9 and upYou learn: consumerism, goal of life is to shop, money is good, credit is goodWhat they have in common:The goal of every single game is to winTake turns, luckYou learn: winning competition, individualism and money is all importantCommon

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KU SOC 104 - Class Notes

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