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Exam 11. Jessica tends to think of herself as a unique person, with individual personality traits, interests, and opinions. She tends to make decisions on her own, to look after her own needs, and to think of herself as a “self-made woman.” It would be safe to say that Jessica has a(n) __________ self-construal.a. Independent 2. Psychologists typically use a statistic called __________ to denote the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. a. A correlation coefficient 3. The ability to make immediate sacrifices for later rewards is known asa. The capacity to delay gratification 4. Which of the following statements is true regarding the phrase “survival of the fittest”?a. The term “survival” refers to survival of genes in a populations gene pool5. Which of the following is NOT an automatic process for most American adults?a. Reciting the numbers 1-10 in alphabetical order6. If you conduct a study and predict that X causes Y, then X is the a. Independent variable7. Suppose that Ronnie is sitting in class, that he is extremely hungry, and that he spots his neighbor munching on a tempting snack. Ronnie’s automatic system might prompt him toa. Take the snack away from his neighbor8. Research suggests that one way to help people who are potentially suicidal is to encourage thema. To more carefully monitor their behaviors to help correct the things that they do not like about themselves9. In a classic article by sociologist Ralph Turner, it was noted that different cultures,at different times, have tended to think about the true self as impulse (self as impulse) or as institution (self as institution). Self as impulse refers toa. The persons inner thoughts and feelings10.Social psychologists generally refer to two types of self-awareness. They area. Public self-awareness and private self-awareness11.When social psychology began to come into its own as a field in the 1950s and 1960s, mainstream psychology was divided between two main theoretical camps. These werea. Behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis12.One day Annie happened to find a $5 bill in a jacket that she had not worn in two years. On another day when she put a $5 into a change machine while doing laundry, the machine ate her money and did not dispense any quarters. Research suggests that losing the $5 bill would _______________ than finding the $5 bill in the jacket.a. Have a stronger psychological impact 13.In social psychology, people who regard traits and abilities as fixed and stable are known as __________, while people who believe that it is possible to changeand improve traits and abilities are known as _________ .a. Entity theorists … incremental theorists 14.Research suggests that in order to flourish in life, people need to have roughly __________ positive emotions as negative emotions.a. Three times as many15.Research has demonstrated that men and women perceive certain behaviors differently: Men are more likely than women to assume that an innocent smile is a sign of flirtation, while women are more likely than men to assume that blatant flirtation is merely a sign of friendliness. These research findings are most consistent witha. Error management theory 16.According to social psychological research, students who suffer from test anxiety would be wise to _________ while taking tests. a. Focus on low levels of meaning in identifying their actions17.Research on the planning fallacy indicates that we tend to__________ when making predictions about ourselves and we tend to __________ when making predictions about other people.a. Be overly optimistic .. be realistic18.Compared to people with high self-esteem, people with low self-esteem area. Less willing to try again after failing to reach a goal19.Research has shown that children are less likely to steal Halloween candy if there is a big mirror in front of them than if there is no mirror. This finding illustrates the fact thata. High self-awareness tends to increase moral behavior 20.Research has shown that men tend to like cars more when car ads feature sexy women than when they don’t. Furthermore, men __________ aware that they like the cars more, __________ aware that the sexy women probably influenced their opinion.a. Are … but are not21.Research suggests that pursuing self-esteem as an end in itself tends toa. Lead to a variety of negative consequences 22.Given the research on positive illusions, which of the following is probably NOT true?a. Most people in therapy for depression think that they’ll recover faster than other patients.23.When we compare ourselves to people who are worse off than we are, this is calleda. Downward social comparison24.Which part of the self is most concerned with gaining social acceptance and fitting in?a. The interpersonal self25.The term “looking-glass self” was coined to refer to the idea thata. We tend to judge ourselves rather than positively compared to how other people judge us 26.Based on early research by Norman Triplett with racing cyclists, we should expect that children who walk one quarter of a mile alone will __________ than children who walk one quarter of a mile in the presence of other children.a. Walk more slowly27.People sometimes take life-threatening risks—such as not wearing helmets whenriding motorcycles, having unprotected sex, sunbathing against a doctor’s advice,and driving far over the speed limit—in order to “look cool.” This demonstrates the strong power ofa. Self-presentation 28.According to evolutionary theory, the traits of which of the following men should be most favored by natural selection? a. Saul, who has 4 biological children, and dies when he is 2529.Suppose that you are out on a date. Although your date is somewhat entertaining, you keep having intrusive thoughts about a home improvement project that you were in the middle of right before you had to leave to meet your date. These thoughts are evidence ofa. The Zeigarnik effect30.Dr. Wirtz is conducting a study of the effects of regular cardiovascular exercise on happiness. His research examines how people feel when they exercise for 250 minutes per week, other behaviors that tend to produce happiness, and people’s thoughts about the relationship between exercise and happiness. His study can be said to incorporatea. The “ABC triad”31.Cultural psychologists use the term praxis to describea. Practical ways of doing things32.Although sociologists and social psychologists are

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