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PSYC 3221 1st EditionExam # 1 Study GuideSocial PsychologyChapter 2: Social Thinking• Self-Concept: who am I?• Do we have self-insight/self-awareness?• Duality of the self: self-concept vs. self-awareness• Social selves/self-monitoring• Do animals have a sense of self?• Culture and self: individualism vs. collectivism (H. Triandis)• Self Esteem• Reactions to negative moods• The good and bad of self-esteem• Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins, 1989)• Self domains– Actual self– Ideal self– Ought self • Standpoints on the self: personal vs. significant other– Perceived self-control• Locus of control• Self-efficacy• Dimensions of causality: internal/external, stable/unstable, controllable/uncontrollable (Weiner’s attribution model)• Learned helplessness versus self-determination• Self-serving bias• Explanations for positive and negative events• Can we all be better than average?• Unrealistic optimism/Pollyanna principle• False consensus and uniqueness • Other self-serving tendencies• Self-serving bias• Reflections on self-efficacy and self-serving bias– The self-serving bias as adaptive– The self-serving bias as maladaptive• Self-presentation• Impression management• Self-presentation strategies– Ingratiation– Intimidation– Self-promotion– Supplication– Self-handicapping– False modestyChapter 3: Social Beliefs & Judgments• Explaining others• Attribution Theory (Heider, 1958)– Dispositional vs. situational attributions– Inferring traits– Commonsense attributions• Correspondent Inference Theory• Jones and Davis (1965)• Non-common effects--more salient than common effects• General Expectations/Social Desirability• Category Based Expectations/Social Roles• Covariation Model• Kelley (1967)• Consensus (how others behave in same situation)• Distinctiveness (how person behaves in other similar situations)• Consistency (how person behaved previously in same situation)• Kelley (1967) Continued• Weiner’s Attribution Model• Locus (determined by Kelley model): internal vs. external• Stability (affects expectations of future behavior)• Controllability (affects inferences about responsibility and emotions of anger or sympathy, for example)• Fundamental Attribution Error• Ross (1977): underestimate the situation and overestimate dispositions• Jones and Harris (1967): Castro study• Explaining others (cont.)• Explaining the FAE– Perspective and situational awareness– Anchoring and Adjustment heuristic– Culture differences– Actor Observer Difference (Jones and Nisbett, 1972)• How fundamental is the FAE?– Correspondence Bias• Constructing interpretations and memories• Perceiving and interpreting events• Priming (activating associations in memory)• Heuristics (mental short-cuts)– The availability heuristic – Counterfactual thinking– Representative heuristic– Ignoring base-rate information– Anchoring and adjustment heuristic• Constructing interpretations and memories• Confirmation bias• Belief perseverance• Illusory correlation/Illusion of control• Self-fulfilling beliefs• Teacher expectations and student performance• Getting from others what we expectChapter 4: Behaviors & Attitudes• 3 types of Attitude Antecedents– Attitude• Behavioral processes• Affective processes• Cognitive processes• When do attitudes predict behavior?– Minimizing social influences on expressed attitudes– Bogus Pipeline– Minimizing other influences on behavior– Examining attitudes specific to the behavior– Making attitudes potent• Does behavior determine attitudes?– Role playing/Zimbardo’s Stanford prison study (1971)• College students assigned to be prisoners and other as prison guards• Healthy college students• Prisoners were given uniforms; extreme stress reactions• Prison guards; became abusive• Study was cancelled because it go out of control– Saying becomes believing• Method acting– The foot-in-the-door phenomenon/low-balling• Sales tactic• Get someone to agree to a small request, hoping they will later agree to a larger request later• Commitment happens gradually– Evil acts & attitudes• They must deserve it• Justifying the bad behavior– Interracial behavior and attitudes• More positive attitudes lead to less residence. Small behaviors can lead to attitude changes– Social movements• “PC” politically correct• Why does behavior affect attitudes?– Cognitive Dissonance Theory: (Festinger, 1957; Festinger and Carlsmith, 1959) We don’t like to feel like hypocrite & we like to justify out consistent behavior. Unpleasant state of psychological arousal like guilt or shame. Perceive myself as an honest person but we lie to someone, that uncomfortable that is CD. We want to get rid of that state by changing what you did or change your belief; don’t lie or become a liar. (already have an attitude in place & you act differently in a situation & your internal &/or external reaction)• Reducing dissonance• Insufficient justification - External vs. internal justification• Being paid $1 vs. $20 to lie to someone about how fun a study is• External: $20 people are ok with it because they got paid for it• Internal: $1 changed their attitude convincing themselves that it wasa fun study even if they didn’t believe that because they lied• Low dissonance vs. High dissonance (see figure)• New look at dissonance theory (Cooper and Fazio, 1984)• Dissonance after decisions/buyer’s remorse• Once you make the decision there might be some remorse but CD says that you’re going to change your attitude to like the car because you spent so much on it• Cognitive Dissonance (cont.)– Moral decisions• Ex. cheating or not• Cheated: Attitudes about fidelity changes & internal changes happen to justify their decision• Didn’t Cheat: judge people who do cheat harsher– Justification of effort– Insufficient punishment• Avoiding doing something to not be punished doesn’t change their attitudes (using threats of harsh punishment)– Overjustification effect• Too much external reward for something• Reason you’re playing baseball is for the money• If you’re getting paid you think you’re doing it because you enjoy it• Example: paying kids when they get good grades is a bad idea– Liking our beneficiaries and hating our


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