U of A BIOL 1543 - Exam 2 Study Guide (11 pages)

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Exam 2 Study Guide



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BIOM 121 Edition 1nd Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures 8 11 Lecture 8 DNA Structure and Replication The monomers of nucleic acids are composed of what three things A sugar phosphate and a nitrogenous base order of bases determines the molecule that s made What two things form the backbone for the nucleic acid or polynucleotide The sugar and phosphate Define DNA A nucleic acid made of long chains of nucleotide monomers The sugar found in DNA is Deoxyribose Thymine and Cytosine are Pyrimidine The two purines are what Adenine and Guanine Adenine pairs with and Guanine pairs with Thymine Cytosine RNA uses what nucleotide instead of Thymine Uracil The sugar found in RNA is what Ribose is a double stranded helix whereas is singlestranded DNA RNA The complimentary base pairs are held together by what type of bonds Hydrogen aka duplication is the process of making a duplicate copy of a DNA strand Replication 50 nucleotides added sec in mammals and 500 sec in bacteria DNA has a proofreading enzyme and a enzyme Repair is an organism s genetic makeup Genotype The manifestation of the genotype is what the characteristic we see Phenotype Define gene A long line of nucleotides Central Dogma GENES to PROTEINS The two main stages of making a protein from DNA are what Transcription and translation What occurs in the nucleus and moves the message forward by producing RNA DNA to RNA Transcription State the 3 stages of transcription Initiation elongation termination What carries the genetic message from DNA out of the nucleus mRNA aka Messenger RNA What occurs in the cytoplasm mRNA to tRNA Translation tRNA translates the message to a what Polypeptide What is a codon a set of three nucleotides that code for an amino acid Codons in a gene specify the Amino acid sequence of a polypeptide Mutations are changes in the DNA base sequence and are caused by what two things Some error in DNA or mutagens What are Mutagens something capable of causing genetic change Hemoglobin is Oxygen carrying



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