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BIOL 1543 1st Edition Lecture 7Outline of Last LectureI. PhotosynthesisII. Life’s energy cycleIII. PhotosynthesisIV. Life’s energy producersV. Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplastVI. Plants produce O2 gas by splitting waterVII. Photosynthesis occurs in two stagesVIII. THE LIGHT REACTIONS: CONVERTING SOLAR ENERGY TO CHEMICAL ENERGYIX. Photosystems capture solar powerX. The light reactionsXI. The Calvin Cycle: Converting Co2 to SugarsXII. Photosynthesis ReviewedXIII. FermentationXIV. Fermentation in muscle cellsXV. Interconnections between molecular breakdown and synthesisOutline of Current LectureI. Enzyme Activity Can Mirror Drug ActionII. Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme actionIII. Feedback inhibition regulates cell activityIV. Many poisons, pesticides, and drugs are enzyme inhibitorsV. Your liver and the smooth ERVI. Endplasmic Reticulum ComplicationsVII.Drug Abuse BasicsCurrent LectureI. Enzyme Activity Can Mirror Drug Actiona. The way enzymes (and enzyme-inhibitors) act can give us a clue as to how our medicines workb. Enzymes are protein catalysts that accelerate specific chemical reactions but does not itself undergo net chemical changesII. Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme actiona. A competitive inhibitor takes the place of a substrate in the active site.i. gets into the active site to the substrate can’t get in (competing for the location)b. A noncompetitive inhibitor alters an enzyme’s function by changing its shape.These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i. Alters the size and shapeIII. Feedback inhibition regulates cell activitya. In feedback inhibition (AKA Negative feedback)(AKA NegativeFeedback Loop), a reaction’s product blocks the reaction itself.b. Three typesi. This is a mechanism to (1) regulate metabolism in cells. (2) It saves resources from being wasted in reducing unnecessary production. And (3) controls the action being produced so that it does not progress too extremelyc. Picture= example the cardio excellerentIV. Many poisons, pesticides, and drugs are enzyme inhibitorsa. Beneficial and harmful examplesb. Many inhibitors are irreversible! permanently alter a pathwayi. If an enzyme inhibitor is irreversible- will lead to deathc. Poisons target particular pathwaysi. Malathion is extremely toxic, not so much to humans, but more so to pestsd. Penicillini. Antibiotic (only act on bacteria)1. Types of antibioticsa. Bacterio-cidal; kill the bacteria but not the hostb. Bacterio Static; stops the bacteria reproductione. Ibuprofen & aspirini. acetaminophens1. Three primary activities (But may not have all three)a. inhibit analgesic enzymes (against pain)b. Antipyretic (inhibit pyresis) (fever)c. anti-inflammatoriesf. ACE inhibitors!Angiotensin converting enzymei. Converting enzyme - converts 1 to 2ii. Angiotensin [angio= blood vessel; tensin= tension]1. decreases the size of the blood vessel which increases blood pressure2. Angiotensin 1- inactive3. Angiotensin 2- baso constrictoriii. Medications that treat high blood pressures are antihypertensivesV. Your liver and the smooth ERa. The liver detoxifies many substances in our bodies, often using enzymes produced by smooth ER in the liver cells.b. Overexposure causes the smooth ER to grow, reducing the effectiveness of a particular drug.c. Liver tissue can scar, causing cirrhosis, often fatal- because it doesn’t detox our bodies any more (Hepatic= liver)d. #1 LEGAL drug that is a problem is alcoholVI. Endplasmic Reticulum Complicationsa. Some diseases may be linked to ER malfunctionb. Cystic Fibrosis-The childhood disease refers to two of the hallmarks of the disease—the formation of lung cysts and fibosis, or scar tissue.i. Mutant CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gets stuck in endoplasmic reticulum and can’t perform its functionVII.Drug Abuse Basicsa. Changes Rapidlyb. Very difficult to controlc. Total results unknownd. Serious problem for all of use. #1 illegal drug in Arkansas that is a problem is crystal methi. long history and only takes one usef. No long term studies on drug abusers because they all


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