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U of A BIOL 1543 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 1543 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Chapter: 1 – 11Lecture 1 (January 14)Introductory conceptsDefine Biology:- The study of lifeList the level of organization, in order, and give an example for each:- Biosphere (Everything in Earth)- Ecosystem (California Anza-Borrego Desert State Park)- Community (all organisms in the Anza-Borrego Desert State Park)- Population (group of hummingbirds)- Organism (English Lab)- Organ system (nervous system)- Organ (brain)- Tissue (nervous tissue)- Cell (nerve cell)- Organelle (nucleus)- Molecule (DNA)Describe an ecosystem. Which direction does energy flow? From what does energyflow? To what?- a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment- One direction from the sun all the way through to heat or decomposition.- Sunlight -> photosynthesis -> cycling of chemical nutrients as chemical energy ->cellular respiration (ATP) -> Heat from animal or the decomposition of the animal.What is a cell? What are the two types of cells and what makes them different? BIOM 121 1ndEdition- The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism- Eukaryotic: has a true nucleus- Prokaryotic: lacks certain organellesWhat is DNA?- DNA is the genetic information for constructing the molecules that make up cellsand organismsAll organisms share what two common set of features?- Ordered structures and regulation of internal conditionsAn organism must possess all four of these features to be considered living: 1. Growth & development 3. Response to environmental stimuli 2. Energy use 4. The ability to reproduce and evolveWhat is natural selection? How is “editing” used in this case?- An editing mechanism that occurs when populations or organisms are exposed toenvironmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals overothers. Editing: the elimination of individuals with certain traits and then thereproduction of survivors.Who came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection?- Charles DarwinWhat is an adaptation? (Think of the bird eating the white bugs instead of the blackbugs)- A trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that ismaintained and evolved by means of natural selection.What is a theory? What makes it Falsifiable?- A broad explanation with large bodies of evidence.- The predictions are made and tested.What are the two basic ways we learn about nature?- News and online blogs Which type of science uses inductive reasoning?- valid reasoning/ hypothesis and then logical reasoning : inductive reasoningWhat does hypothesis-based science involve?- involves observations, questions, and hypotheses as tentative answers to questions:deductive reasoningWhat are some important issues in our lives that deal with biology?- Finding cures for bad diseases. The effects of global warming.What are some important points from the venomous fish article?- Fish out number all other venomous vertebral animals combined.- Polypeptides = proteinsWhat are some important points from the ugly tomatoes article?- Commercial tomatoes today are not bred from taste, but for shape and ability towithstand shipping.- Heirloom tomatoes are what tomatoes are meant to taste like. They are tomatoesthat have been bred by the same people in the same area for 50+ years.Lecture 2 (January 21)Universal OriginsWhat is the universal hierarchy in order. Which is the following is the mostinclusive? Which is the least inclusive?- Universe, galaxy, Solar system, Planets, moons- Most inclusive: Universe- Least inclusive: MoonsWhat is the term used to describe the beginning of the universe, and when wasthe estimated time this happened?- Big bang- about 14 billion years agoWhat is a Supernova and what happens?- An explosive death of a massive star 8 times the size of our sun.- A giant star collapses, compacts densely, and then explodes. It then releases heatand energy to form heavier elements.What is the definition of a nebula cloud?- an immense interstellar cloud of dust and gas, mainly hydrogenWhat is gravity?- the force of attraction between all masses in the universeList the four layers of the earth from inner-most layer to the outer-most layer.- inner core- outer core- mantle- crustWhat are the four primary elements that make up the bulk of living matter?- Carbon - hydrogen- oxygen- nitrogenWhat is a Goiter?- an enlargement of the thyroid gland. Not cancer.What is an atom?- the smallest particle of matter that still retains the properties of an elementAtoms are made up of what three things?- protons- neutrons- electronsName the four general rules of atoms:- the number of protons equal the atomic number- the number of electrons equal the number of protons which equals the atomicnumber- the mass number equals the number of protons plus the number of neutrons- the number of neutrons equal the mass number minus the atomic numberAtoms of each element are distinguished by a specific number of what?- protonsWhat is an Isotope?- Variant forms of an element, such as C12, C13, and C14Electrons are arranged how?- in shells, and their arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom.How do atoms that do not have full shells tend to interact with other atoms?- They will gain, lose, or share electrons What are covalent bonds?- Covalent bonds join atoms into molecules through electron sharing. In covalentbonds, two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons, formingmolecules.Charged molecules are known to be what?- polarA molecule is said to be what if its covalently bonded atoms share electronsequally?- nonpolarWhat is the attractive interaction of a hydrogen atom with a electro-negativeatom.- hydrogen bondWhich bonds are strong and which are weak?- “Strong” bonds = covalent bonds- “Weak” bonds = hydrogen bondsWhat is the intermolecular attraction between like molecules?- Cohesion (It makes water “sticky”)A bug can stay on top of the water and not sink due to what?- Surface tension. This makes liquid behave as if a thin elastic film under tension.Water’s hydrogen bonds regulate what?- TemperatureWhy does ice float and what does this property protect lakes and oceans fromdoing?- Ice is less dense than water.What is the solvent of life?- Water Lecture 3 (January 23)The Molecules of CellsLife’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of what?- carbonDefine organic molecules.- compounds containing carbon. They are used by living things.What are isomers? Give an example of this.-


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