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NDSU PSYC 260 - The Basic Structure of a Neuron

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LECTURE 8 2-6-15-Basic Structure of a Neuron (Image on page 78)Cell Body (soma)- care region of the cell containing the nucleus and other organelles for making proteinsDendrites- extensions of the neuron’s cell membrane, which increases its surface area and receives information from other cells.Dendritic spines- extension of dendriteAxon- the single fiber of a neuron that carries its signalto the axon terminals (terminal buttons)Axon hillock- where the axon meets the soma and where action potentials beginAxon collateral- branch of the axonTerminal button (axon terminal)- knob at the tip of an axon that conveys information to other neuronsSynapse- junction between one neuron and another that forms the information-transfer site between neurons-Three Types of Neurons1. Sensory NeuronsBipolar Neurons (does not occur often)Located in the eyeSensory neuron with one axon and one dendriteSomatosensory NeuronsPart of the Somatic Nervous systemNeurons that bring sensory information from the body to the spinal cordLongest axon in body- located in toes. Goes from tip of big toe to base of brain2. InterneuronsInterneurons- these are association neurons interposed between a sensory neuron and a motor neuronsIn mammals. Inter neurons constitute for most of the neurons in the brain3. Motor NeuronsMotor Neuron- neuron that carries information form the brain and spinal cord to make muscles contract- The Communication of NeuronsNeurons either excite other neurons, or inhibit other neuronsEach neuron gets thousands of signals every secondSummationExcitatory - Inhibitory-5 Types of Glial Cells1. Ependymal CellProduces CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)2. Astrocyte CellCNS structural supportHead injuriesKeep neurons from touching each other- scaffoldingBlood-brain barrier (constricting blood vessels)Dilate blood vessels3. Microglial CellOriginate in the bloodActs as the brain’s immune systemAlzheimer’s Disease4 and 5. Oligodendroglia and Schwann CellsInsulate the axons of neuronsO-CNS; S-PNSPSYC 260 1st EditionLecture 8Outline of Current LectureI. Basic Structure of a NeuronII. Three Types of NeuronsIII. The Communication of NeuronsIV. Five Types of Glial CellsCurrent Lecture LECTURE 8 2-6-15 -Basic Structure of a Neuron (Image on page 78)- Cell Body (soma)- care region of the cell containing the nucleus and other organelles for making proteins- Dendrites- extensions of the neuron’s cell membrane, which increases its surface area and receives information from other cells. - Dendritic spines- extension of dendrite- Axon- the single fiber of a neuron that carries its signal to the axon terminals (terminal buttons)- Axon hillock- where the axon meets the soma and where action potentials begin- Axon collateral- branch of the axon- Terminal button (axon terminal)- knob at the tip of an axon that conveys informationto other neurons- Synapse- junction between one neuron and another that forms the information-transfer site between neurons -Three Types of Neurons- 1. Sensory Neuronso Bipolar Neurons (does not occur often) Located in the eye Sensory neuron with one axon and one dendriteo Somatosensory Neurons Part of the Somatic Nervous system Neurons that bring sensory information from the body to the spinal cord Longest axon in body- located in toes. Goes from tip of big toe to base of brain- 2. Interneuronso Interneurons- these are association neurons interposed between a sensory neuron and a motor neurons In mammals. Inter neurons constitute for most of the neurons in thebrain- 3. Motor Neuronso Motor Neuron- neuron that carries information form the brain and spinal cord to make muscles contract - The Communication of Neurons- Neurons either excite other neurons, or inhibit other neurons- Each neuron gets thousands of signals every second o Summationo Excitatory - Inhibitory -5 Types of Glial Cells- 1. Ependymal Cello Produces CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) - 2. Astrocyte Cello CNS structural supporto Head injurieso Keep neurons from touching each other- scaffoldingo Blood-brain barrier (constricting blood vessels) o Dilate blood vessels- 3. Microglial Cello Originate in the bloodo Acts as the brain’s immune systemo Alzheimer’s Disease- 4 and 5. Oligodendroglia and Schwann Cellso Insulate the axons of neurons O-CNS;


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