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UW-Milwaukee CRMJST 271 - History of Policing

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CRM JST 271 1st Edition Lecture 3I. Early Policing: a. The earliest forms of policing were highly informalb. Kin policingi. Family, clan or tribe enforced rules and norms of conductii. What was the nature of punishment during this timec. Nightwatchi. Group of citizens patrolling at night looking for fires and other problemsd. Sheriffs were appointed by the king in twelfth century Englandi. Levied fines and ensured that the frankpledge system workedii. What was the frankpledge system?e. Constables were eventually mandated to assist the sheriffi. Conducted investigations, served warrants, took charge of prisoners, etc.f. Much of this work was unpaid and unpopular, howeveri. Others often paid to do work of appointed; often old, poor, inefficientII. Policing in the 19th Century Englanda. 19th century policing in England became model for US policingb. Henry fielding and the Bow Street Runners (detectives)c. Sir Robert Peel and the Metropolitan Police Act (1829)i. Peel’s efforts resulted in the creation of 1st organized police forceIII. Peelian Principlesa. Police must be stable, efficient, organized along military linesb. Police must be under government controlc. The absence of crimed. The distribution of crime news is essential (crime should never be a secret; community can help reduce crime)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.e. Essential to deploy police strength by time and areaf. No quality is more indispensable to a policeman than a perfect command of temper; a quiet, determined manner has more effect than violent actiong. Good appearance commands respecth. The securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiencyi. Public security demands that every officer be given a numberj. Police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessiblek. Policemen should be hired on a probationary basisl. Police records are necessary to the right distribution of police strengthIV. The Emergence of Modern Policing in the U.S.a. The English brought their system of policing with them in 16 and 1700’si. That is, offices of justice of the peace, sheriff, constable, and nightwatchb. US system gradually shifted from volunteer citizens to paid specialistsV. First City Police Forcesa. In the mid 1800’s, many cities created paid polices forcesb. 4 theories explain the development of police departmentsi. Disorder-control theory1. Police rose to suppress mob violence (middle class mobs)ii. Crime-control theory1. Needed police to control crime in developing, larger citiesiii. Class-control theory1. Class based, economic discretion (use police to keep rich richer and the poor poorer)iv. Urban-dispersion theoryc. US police departments generally focused on the Peelian concept of preventiond. Differences between US and British police were due to:i. Social context: US more violentii. Political Environment: US politicians were more meddlesomeiii. Law enforcement policies: US departments were decentralizedVI. The County Sheriffa. By 1870’s, most cities had formed police departmentsi. In rural areas, however, elected sheriffs enforced the law1. Served court order, collected taxes, looked after prisoners in jailii. Modern sheriff departments have the following responsibilities:1. Collecting some type of taxes (not all counties, however)2. Provide personnel and security for courts3. Operate jails and other correctional facilities4. Maintaining peace and order and providing general law enforcementVII. Vigilance Committeesa. 19th century policing also saw private, organized groups called vigilante committeesi. Voluntary association of men organized to respond to real or imagined threats, to protect the safety of their propertyii. Vigilante movements most common in American westVIII. The Political Eraa. The political era exited from the mid-18th century to the 1920si. Oriented to special interestsii. Police practices and services determined by political considerationsiii. Authority from powerful local politiciansiv. Political and economic corruption were common in police departments1. What are some examples of police activities during this time? (Chicago!IX. Features of the Political Eraa. Kelling& Moore (1988) identified 7 features of the Political Era:i. Police derived their own authorityii. Police engaged in a variety of functionsiii. Police had a decentralized organizational structureiv. Police had close and personal relationships with citizensv. Police tactics included foot patrol and investigationsvi. Demands of police were channeled through local politiciansvii. Police were evaluated by citizens’ level of


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