UWL BIO 312 - Final Exam Study Guide (10 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Summary of lectures 19-23.


Pages:
10
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Course:
Bio 312 - Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Edition:
1

Unformatted text preview:

BIO 312 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lecture 19 Introduction to Muscles Muscle Characteristics One of the 4 primary tissues 3 types Skeletal smooth cardiac Specialized to generate force produce movement perform work Converts chemical energy ATP into mechanical energy and heat Comprises about 40 50 of body weight most skeletal Characteristics o Excitability ability to change membrane potential o Contractility ability to contract and move bones o Extensibility ability to stretch and withstand force o Elasticity ability to recoil back to original length when stretched Striated muscle has striped appearance under microscope o Skeletal and cardiac muscle Unstriated muscle has smooth non striped appearance under scope o Smooth muscle Voluntary skeletal muscle Involuntary smooth and cardiac muscle Anatomy and Histology Each muscle consists of o muscle cells fibers o Endomysium connective tissue that covers each muscle fiber o Fascicle bundle of parallel muscle fibers covered by perimysium Length of cells muscle length o Epimysium connective tissue that covers several fascicles that make up the muscle as a whole o Blood and lymphatic vessels o Efferent and afferent nerves Skeletal Muscle Fiber structure much larger cells than smooth or skeletal o Sarcolema muscle cell membrane contains many sodium gated and voltage gated ion channels o Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of muscle cell o Mitochondria very high density of mitochondria for ATP production o Contain several nuclei on periphery of cell under sarcolema o Myofibril tube like structures that compose majority of volume of muscle cells Number of myofibril per cell vary based on diameter of cell Arranged parallel to the long axis of the muscle Structures that shorten and do the work during contraction Each myofibril loosely surrounded by series of membranes and sacs called sarcoplasmic reticulum o Striations repeating pattern of bands along each myofibril Sarcomeres one repeating unit of striations that is the basic unit of



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