UWL BIO 312 - Skeletal System (3 pages)

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Skeletal System

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Skeletal System


Lecture notes from the end of the section on bones

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Lecture Note
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Bio 312 - Human Anatomy and Physiology I

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Bio 312 Lecture 5 Outline of Current Lecture I Growth hormone a Parathyroid Gland II Bone diseases a Osteoporosis III Bone Fractures a Classification b treatment Current Lecture Growth Hormone Estrogen and testosterone anabolic o Stimulate the synthesis of macromolecules amino acids into proteins muscle growth Insulin stimulates protein synthesis Thyroid Hormone enhances effect of GH increases number of receptors o Needed for nervous system to develop o Deficiency in infancy could cause cretinism cretin dwarf Bone Plays Essential Role in Regulating Blood Ca 2 levels Plasma Ca 2 is precisely regulated o Ca 2 influences vital functions in body such as Blood clotting Exocytosis hormone and neurotransmitter release excitation contraction coupling in cardiac and smooth muscle Excitability of neurons controlling skeletal muscle hypocalcemic tetany Can cause spasm of skeletal muscle or even paralyze the diaphragm o About 99 of Ca 2 in our body is contained in bone as hydroxyapatites bone matrix o Bone can release Ca2 and phosphate into ECF when blood levels of Ca 2 fall too low o Role of bone in ECF Ca2 homeostasis is regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin come from parathyroid gland which are embedded in thyroid glad located directly below larynx o Roles of PTH during hypocalcemia Activates osteoclasts causing calcium and phosphate ions released into blood Increases calcium absorption from food Promotes activation of vitamin D in kidney to better absorb calcium During hypercalcemia PTH levels drop and calcitonin levels rise which generally has opposite effects on Ca as PTH Suppose a patient has tumor in parathyroid gland and excess PTH released What are the consequences to skeleton Increased osteoclasts activity would reduce bone mass as well as strength of bone Higher incidence of fractures Elevated levels of calcium and phosphate ions Increased incidence of kidney stones Nutritional Influences on Bone Health Remodeling and Repair Bone growth and remodeling

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