UWL BIO 312 - Ergoenic aids, control of skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle (2 pages)

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Ergoenic aids, control of skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle



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Ergoenic aids, control of skeletal muscle, and smooth muscle

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Lecture notes on ergogenic aids, the control of skeletal muscle and an introduction to smooth muscle.


Lecture number:
23
Pages:
2
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Course:
Bio 312 - Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Edition:
1

Unformatted text preview:

Bio 312 Lecture 23 Lecture Outline 1 Ergogenic aids 2 Control of skeletal muscle o Motor neuron pools o Size principle 3 Smooth muscle o characteristics Ergogenic Aids Caffeine increase performance in both endurance exercise and high intensity exercise lasting about 5 mins o CNS stimulant saves muscle glycogen early in sub max exercise FFA mobilization Blood doping increasing the number of RBC s in body thus increasing amount of oxygen in blood o Remove RBCs about a month prior to event body makes more add blood cells back into blood o Erythropoietin hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells Amphetamines CNS stimulants Adderall Growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis Anabolic steroids stimulates protein synthesis testosterone type drug increase in muscle mass and strength o Increased cholesterol hypertension liver disease jaundice increased sex drive impotence atrophy of testes lowers testosterone and spermatogenesis enlarged prostate depression aggression Control of Skeletal muscle Innervated by somatic motor neurons originating in ventral horn of spinal cord and cranial nerve motor nuclei Signals from alpha motor neurons always excitatory o Motor neuron nerve cell bodies are grouped together in motor neuron pool o Motor neuron pools extend over several spinal cord segments Axons from motor neuron pool exit spinal cord over several consecutive spinal roots accounts for partial paralysis of muscle following certain types of spinal cord injury Somatic motor neuron receives thousands of IPSPs and EPSPs from 1 Higher CNS areas 2 Somatosensory afferents 3 Muscle afferents spindles What determines which motor units in a motor neuron pool get activated during contraction of whole muscle o Only small portion of motor units within muscle s motor neuron pool are activated for most contractions o Recruitment of motor units during contraction is governed by the size principle All three types of muscle fibers are represented in a typical skeletal muscle



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