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USC IR 369 - Lecture 7

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The Korean War and NSC 68Korean invasion suddenly validated even the most extreme of NSC 68s conclusions1. Confirmed all interests had become equally vital2. Confirmed NSC 68 argument that the soviet union might resort to war by proxy, even in the face of nuclear superiorityshould assume behind any war anywhere else, their was a soviet hand3. Invasion confirmed NSC’s 68s notion that existing US forces were inadequate4. Invasion validated NSC’s 68s call for developming and stockpiling of thermonuclear weaponsImpact of the Korean warOn USSRIn world of increase tensions made it impossible for any agreements between US and USSR over shared territoriesOn the USSee US starting to support French in Indochina/Vietnam (Truman saw himself between a rock and a hard place---colonialism and communism)On EuropeFrench tried to flex miliarty arms in Vietnam and lost (huge surprise)Europe was chestboard for Cold War; once US got more involved it was hard for Europe not to be seriously effectedCold war arms raceDecision to return US troops to, and station ground troopsEstablishment of position of Supreme Allied Commander for Europe (SACEUR), first was Eisenhower, US army in 1951, currently Admiral Stavridis, first US navy admiral to become SACEURDecision to start research on thermonuclear weapons in jan 1950In 1950 decided to form integrated military command (combo of US and European armies against the east)Realized at some point west germany would have to be armed because they were on front line of cold warWelcomed back into NATO in 1959 (with resistance from French)ECSC (euro coal and steal community)In may 1950, Schuman proposed combining coal and steal production of french and west germany under one authorityFounding members: france, west germnay, italy, BeneluxPrecursor to treaty of Rome, march 1957, which turned the ECSC into the EEC…which became the EC and finally the present day EUECSC had both econ and political aspects: nascent executive body, parliamentary assembly, court of justiceMotivation: bind west germnay to its neighbors, ensure that it has a self interest in not causing conflictEisenhowerThe guiding question of his presidency: How can the US live with Thermonuclear weapons?John Foster Dullace—secretary of stateThermonuclear eraFirst successful US detonation: 1 nov 1952 (called mike)First successful Soviet detoniation: 12 augustExceeded expectations; 4x more powerfulNuclear weapons vs Thermonuclear weaponsThermonuclear developed surprisingly quickly from nuclearFirst fission bomb explodes (the primary)LOOK IT UP!Performed on an island in the pacific and radioactive matter effected 300+ miles and killed a Japanese sailer 90 miles away (rendered 1% of the earths atmosphere uninhabitableOver 2 decades after end of cold war, the US and Russia still retain stockpines of about 10,000 nuclear weapons eachTheory committed to reduce stockpiles to about half that number by end of 2012SORT and New StartUs and Russia committed to reduce stockpiles by end of 2012, when strategic offensive reductions treaty (SORT) census ate was to occurTreaty language reduce “..so that by December 31. 2012 the aggregate number of such warheads does not exceed 1700-2200 for each US and RussiaSORT replaced by New Start this yearNuclear states= US, USSR and successor states, UK, France, China, Confrime or probable tests: India, Pakistan, N. Korea, ISreal, Iran en route to capabilityS. Africa, Ukraine were nuclear states, but decided to give it upFading efforts to fight proliferationThere are growing concerns about a loss of momentum in the nuclear disarmament process: additional states acquiring nuclear weapons; and the possibility of nuclear terrorismHighly enriched UraniumGlobal stockpile is about 1600 metric tons plus/minus 300 tons (uncertainty about Russian supply)Eisenhower’s farewell address jan 17, 1961“the conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience…we must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes”Eisenhower on Thermonuclear weaponsWe are creating more bombs bc we don’t know how to protect our securityEuropean reactionsOpen questions: Would US really use thermonuclear weapons to fullfill article 5 obligationsIn case not :Euro counties need own nuclear deterrentsBritish and French nuclear programs beginEurope in the 1950sMarch 1953; STALIN DIESFeb 1956: Khrushchev, stalins successor criticizes Stalin in secret speech; 4hours long calling him a criminalDidn’t stay secret long, Israeli spies gave it to the US and there was a brief hope that communism/totalitarianism was done in Russia4 nov 1956, USSR invades Hungarylecture 7← The Korean War and NSC 68- Korean invasion suddenly validated even the most extreme of NSC 68s conclusions- 1. Confirmed all interests had become equally vital- 2. Confirmed NSC 68 argument that the soviet union might resort towar by proxy, even in the face of nuclear superiorityoshould assume behind any war anywhere else, their was a soviet hand- 3. Invasion confirmed NSC’s 68s notion that existing US forces were inadequate- 4. Invasion validated NSC’s 68s call for developming and stockpilingof thermonuclear weapons← Impact of the Korean war- On USSRoIn world of increase tensions made it impossible for any agreements between US and USSR over shared territories - On the USoSee US starting to support French in Indochina/Vietnam (Truman saw himself between a rock and a hard place---colonialism and communism)- On EuropeoFrench tried to flex miliarty arms in Vietnam and lost (huge surprise)oEurope was chestboard for Cold War; once US got more involved it was hard for Europe not to be seriously effected← Cold war arms race- Decision to return US troops to, and station ground troops - Establishment of position of Supreme Allied Commander for Europe (SACEUR), first was Eisenhower, US army in 1951, currently Admiral Stavridis, first US navy admiral to become SACEUR- Decision to start research on thermonuclear weapons in jan 1950- In 1950 decided to form integrated military command (combo of US and European armies against the east)- Realized at some point west germany would have to be armed because they were on front line of cold waroWelcomed back into NATO in 1959 (with resistance from French)← ECSC (euro coal and steal community)- In may 1950, Schuman proposed combining coal and steal production of french and west


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