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USC IR 369 - Lecture 6 - The Problem

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Roosevelts SuccessBrought two separate wars to nearly simultaneous conclusionsLand war in Europe, Sea war in pacificLeft US stronger at end than beginningNot the case with war on terrorismRemembered to keep proclaimed interests from extending beyond actual capabilitiesSpending on domestic war industries ended depressionManhattan ProjectAtomic bomb…hard to imagine this being successful in any other time thab warHeaded by General Leslie Groves, 37 sites around the country employing 120,000 workersKey location: Los Alamos, New Mexico, under direction of physicist J. Robert OppenheimerFirst successful test: July 16, 1945First use in war: August 6th, 1945 in HiroshimaUS became only country in the world with atomic bombSoviet spies in production, Stalin was aware of the bombAtomic BombRoosevelt Put Harry Truman on the ballet during his 4th election because he thought it would help him win…Roosevelt didn’t like or trust Truman and barely even talked to him after the campaignTruman didn’t know about the existence of the atomic bombOnce Truman found out about the bomb, he assumed it was built to be usedFirebombing had become routine in this war, so to Truman it seemed like an easier way to do something they had already been doing throughout the warTruman didn’t seem to question/have moral angst in using the bombTruman used the bomb because 10,000+ Americans would die in a land invasion. With the bomb, the people dying were Japanese, not AmericansWould Truman have dropped the bomb on Euros?...he dropped it on Asians, racism?True target of the atomic bomb was not the Japanese, but the soviet unionNew World Order, Big QuestionsWhat is the essential logic of state choice in those postwar moments when the basic orgs of international order is up for grabs?Why has the specific solution to the problem of order changed or evolved across the great post wars settlementAtlantic CharterRoosevelt and Churchill meet in secret on a boat in the North Atlantic, 1941Key points:Self-determination (countries and voters could choose their own fate)Open markets (unrestricted flow of commodities and capital)Collective securityDivided GermanyGermany became practically a state of anarchyPeople using cigarettes as currency because money had become worthlessBecame impossible to do basic thingsDivided among west (United States) and East (soviet union)Berlin, in itself, was divided as wellGeorge Kennan: State department Soviet expert, Orginator of the Idea of Containment in 1946Idea was that there was gonan be a long term conflict with the soviet union…a shooting war just ended, now there was going to be a cold warKennan- “The Soutrces of soviet conflict”Published in influential journal Foreign AffairsIn his opinion, the Soviet was driven more by a long standing Russian sense of strategic insecurity and need for a buffer than by the messianic goals of Marxist-leninist ideologyThe society union should be expected to pursie its interests by probing the weak pointsKenan set forth what he believed to be the correct us response: a firm but patient policy of containing the expansion of soviet powerLater, there would be other strategies of containment, but this was the original versionWinston Churchill delivers the “iron curtain” speech, Westminster College, March 1946Truman response= the Truman doctrine, delivered a speech to a joint session of congress, March 21, 1947I believe that it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressuresI believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own wayI believe that our help should primary be thru econ and financial aid which is essential to the econ stability of political processesMarshall Plan 1948-52Secretary of state George Marshall announces the Marshall Plan, June 1947Econ recovery planNever any thoughts that the US was going to join the Marshall planUS WAS being altruistic; here win free $$, but the soviets refused to accept itLocal leaders in Czech actually tried to receive Marshall aid, but then the person who expressed that aid mysteriously diedMarshall plan to the west was a successWest Germany, France, etc, were on the way to recoveryAt what extent did the Marshall plan aid in Europe recovery?It helped the Europeans help themselvesExpedited the recoveryThe Problem creating a new world order← Roosevelts Success- Brought two separate wars to nearly simultaneous conclusionsoLand war in Europe, Sea war in pacific- Left US stronger at end than beginningoNot the case with war on terrorism- Remembered to keep proclaimed interests from extending beyond actual capabilities- Spending on domestic war industries ended depression← Manhattan Project- Atomic bomb…hard to imagine this being successful in any other time thab war- Headed by General Leslie Groves, 37 sites around the country employing 120,000 workers- Key location: Los Alamos, New Mexico, under direction of physicist J.Robert Oppenheimer- First successful test: July 16, 1945- First use in war: August 6th, 1945 in Hiroshima- US became only country in the world with atomic bomb- Soviet spies in production, Stalin was aware of the bomb← Atomic Bomb- Roosevelt Put Harry Truman on the ballet during his 4th election because he thought it would help him win…Roosevelt didn’t like or trust Truman and barely even talked to him after the campaign - Truman didn’t know about the existence of the atomic bomb- Once Truman found out about the bomb, he assumed it was built to be used- Firebombing had become routine in this war, so to Truman it seemed like an easier way to do something they had already been doing throughout the war- Truman didn’t seem to question/have moral angst in using the bomb- Truman used the bomb because 10,000+ Americans would die in a land invasion. With the bomb, the people dying were Japanese, not Americans- Would Truman have dropped the bomb on Euros?...he dropped it on Asians, racism?- True target of the atomic bomb was not the Japanese, but the sovietunion← New World Order, Big Questions- What is the essential logic of state choice in those postwar moments when the basic orgs of international order is up for grabs?- Why has the specific solution to the problem of order changed or evolved across the great post wars settlement Atlantic Charter- Roosevelt and Churchill meet in secret on a boat in the North Atlantic,


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