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USC IR 369 - Lecture 3 - The Great War Continued

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Phase III—phase of slaughter (longest phase)Example: july 1916, at battle of the Somme River, 20,000 killed in one dayGoal: since cannot make territorial gains “bleed the enemy white”Entire genre of WWI poets: lost poets/generationWilfred Owen died at age 25 in 1918 in actionGeneral Paul Von Hindenburg and LudendorffIn charge of WWI effort, later appointed Hitler as ChanncellorRan Germany as military dictatorshipKaiser fires Falkenhayn at insistence of Hundenburg and LudendorffGermany experience widespread strikesHidenburg and Ludendorff send strikers to front, increase censorship of war reportsHitler believed the lies in the war reports; that Germany was in fact winning all the battlesHindenburg and ludendorff became delusional and thought they could win the war and continue to extend GermanyPhase of Rev and peaceRussians overthrow Czar in 1917Surrender to Germany in treaty of bresllitosk, 1918US becomes involvedEastern front ceases to be war frontUS entry into warShort term causeGerman unrestricted submarine warfare (German subs were willing to sink any ship, not just warships)Woodrow Wilson driven into war because of US cruise ship sunk in 1915. Wilson not happy and Germany ceased to practice unrestricted warfare for some time but eventually resumed thinking that they can win the war quickly enough before the US had time to enter.Increasing pressure on Wilson to join war as result of unrestricted warfareLIBERAL; believes that international institutions could induce states to corporate; saw idea of balance of power being inherently dangerousContradictory character with how he looks to Europe vs latin America/Asia; he was racistWilson’s believes:the us had discovered the best path to order with its beginnings as loose federationInternational arbitration can solve conflicts peacefully“Goal: get the counsels of plain men to replace the counsels of sophisticated men of affairsKey dates leading to US entry into warMay 1915- American Cruise liner sunk by GermansMarch 1917- German sub sunk four unarmed American merchantmen2 April 1917: Wilson appears before a joint session of Congress to request war solutionZimmerman telegram: Germans to Mexicans that was intercepted. Said that if Mexicans defeated US, they would get US territory taken from themEnd of the WarInvolvement of US put more pressure on the GermansMarch 1918, Germans tried new attack but Americans made it not successfulNovember 11, 1918, END of war; Germans Surrendered, Kaiser fled, Hindenburg and Ludendorff stepped down. Marks Veterans Day Holiday 11/11Germany didn’t actually lose that much territory because war ended before western allies could move forwardQuestion of War GuiltWar by accident, or by timetable?Germans didn’t think tjey were responsible or that they lostFritz Gishcer: War bc of Germans bc of Kaisers decision to give blank check to Austro-Hungarian EmpireWhy did they give blank check?CausesGermany felt encircledBelieved AH survival was essential (reason for blank check); AH was thought to be Germanys only true friendSaw war was legit and desirable way to conduct policyBelieved Germany uniquely qualified to run the worldTrusted militarism as best policyGermany landlockedThe interwar periodVictorious leaders assembled at palace of Versailles outside Paris to negotiate peace treatyWilson traveled to France personally and received heroes welcomePeace conference, Versailles 1918Wilson’s vision of new world orderThe 14 points (look up!)Old vs new diplomacyOld—Secret no role for public opinion, highest goal=national security, social ties of diplomats crucialNew—Public, public opinion matters, highest goal=collective security, govt leaders bypass diplomats, new actors involvedRealism vs idealismPromotion of democracyWilsons defeatTreaty of versaulles signed june 1919Wilson traveled around US seeking supportSept 1919 wilson suffered strokeNov 1919: senate fails to ratify treatyOpposition in senate against treaty, 8000 mile journy to get popular vote on treaty, however treaty was the one voting. Collapsed with a stroke in Colorado at the end of his journey and became incampacited and his people/wife ran the country for the reaminder of his presidency, US public didn’t knowUS isolationismHostility to immigrants: 1919-20 Red ScareUnions were labeled as socialist and un-AmericanNational origins act of 1924 set strict quotas on immigration that contd until 1965Terrible bc Hitler’s actions made euros want to immigrate to US, but they were not able to. Catholics and Jews that were targets of HIlter could not Immigrate because of strict immigration lawsLegacy of WWI is paradoxicalWar was inevitable? If so, after what point?What was the legacy of the brutality of the Great War?Revulsion of euros to fighting; explains slow response to rise of HitlerBankrupt Britain and FranceDestroyed FranceMade Europe hesitant to go forwardBrought communist regime to the world in RussiaThe Great war continued← Phase III—phase of slaughter (longest phase)- Example: july 1916, at battle of the Somme River, 20,000 killed in one day- Goal: since cannot make territorial gains “bleed the enemy white”- Entire genre of WWI poets: lost poets/generation oWilfred Owen died at age 25 in 1918 in action- General Paul Von Hindenburg and LudendorfoIn charge of WWI efort, later appointed Hitler as ChanncelloroRan Germany as military dictatorshipoKaiser fires Falkenhayn at insistence of Hundenburg and LudendorfoGermany experience widespread strikesoHidenburg and Ludendorf send strikers to front, increase censorship of war reportsoHitler believed the lies in the war reports; that Germany was in fact winning all the battlesoHindenburg and ludendorf became delusional and thought they could win the war and continue to extend Germany← Phase of Rev and peace- Russians overthrow Czar in 1917- Surrender to Germany in treaty of bresllitosk, 1918- US becomes involved- Eastern front ceases to be war front← US entry into war- Short term causeoGerman unrestricted submarine warfare (German subs were willing to sink any ship, not just warships)oWoodrow Wilson driven into war because of US cruise ship sunk in 1915. Wilson not happy and Germany ceased to practice unrestricted warfare for some time but eventually resumed thinking that they can win the war quickly enough before the US had time to enter. Increasing pressure on Wilson to join war as result of unrestricted warfareLIBERAL; believes that international


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