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another world war and its legacy Time between world wars Russia Hardliners took control and it became the USSR Western central Europe rise of fascism o Hitler Nazism Ruins in France Germany disrupted normal patterns of trade 1920s radio movies credit phones vacations people began to enjoy themselves for the first time because of end of Great War o illusion was easy to keep up until stock market crash Great Depression Black Thursday Oct 24 1929 By oct 29 1929 all of 1929s profits had vanished By end of November 1928s profits were gone By summer of 1930 1927s profits were gone Market hit bottom on June 8 1932 50 Not able to understand fully why or predict downturns in econ CAUSES of Great Depression o Very uneven distribution of income in 1920 with workers and farmers sharing less in the prosperity o Thereby reducing consumer purchasing power forcing industries like auto and construction to reduce production o Imbalances in monetary tariff and federal tax policies little consumer protection Tariff increase foreign good prices to make domestic products more competitive o Federal reserve tightened rather than loosened credit o High tariff barriers o Some signs of improvement in 1931 but by then consumers and investors were refusing to spend as size of econ declined 50 size of private investment declined 95 o Banking collapses followed Happened again today o Inept response from white house o Prices were rising throughout the day bread more at night then in morning Franklin Delano Roosevelt 32nd president of US 1933 45 elected to 4 terms Had polio in wheel chair as president but concealed it from American public First lady Eleanor Roosevelt of bank failures on day of his inauguration o started bank holiday immediately and it prevented further bank faulires bc during that day he infused money from federal funds into banks signed social security Glass steagall act o protect banks banks had to separate personal deposits and speculative investing so you wouldn t lose personal savings upon bank failures o Repealed under Clinton admin What if figure like Lennon or Hitler rose through democratic systm Resumption of Conflict Sept 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria May 1936 Italy annexed Ethiopia Rome Berlin axis formed same year On going civil war in Spain Totalitarianism and Fascism Lenin leader of Bolshevik Rev in Russia dies in 1924 Succeeded by Josef Vissarionivich Dzhugashvili who takes on name of Josef Stalin Man of Steel Adolph Hitler begins organizing national socialists abbreviated Nazis Rise of Nazism in Germany Weimar Germany o After collapse of monarchy and militart social dem party stepped up to the challenge of leading post war germany o New legal basis Weimar Constitution 1919 Irony one of the most liberal constitution anyone ever created o o Rise o o o o o o No vote was lost Fringe parties that didn t actually win still got representation in parliament GREAT for Hitler New electoral system but helped fringe parties included an emperor in waiting Hindenburg Debate what happened in 1919 of Adolf Hitler Born in Austria United Austria with Nazi germany in first chance What if subtract Hitler from history notion of single individual In terrible car accident in 1931 saw himself as messiah explained accident as of course I didn t die I have not yet done what I am meant to do would have been different germany with out radical anti semite in charge still would have been conflict over Poland other hard to imagine holocaust without Hitler Who voted for Hitler question of religion Greatest support form protestants in country Least support from catholics and workers particularly in cities Hindenburg after 1930 ruled germany as an emperor so he was able to pick Chancellor due to a clause in the Weimar constituion Hindenburg didn t like Hitler but was convinced to make him chancellor bc they thought he was insignificant and that they could control him Hitler never actually ELECTED chancellor or leader Ten factors in Hitlers rise to power 1 Ongoing militarism of german society 2 birth defects of Weimar consitution 3 weakness of the ruling social dem party while in pffice 4 Party cooperation lacking 5 vernunftsrepublikaner lack of real respect for govt Mistress eva 6 Enemies of the republic civil service army extremists intellectuals young 7 Suicide of a democracy 8 Fear of bolshevism 9 Effects of great depression econ downturns can result in poltical extremists 10 Short term nazi electoral success brown 16 11 2011 03 28 00 16 11 2011 03 28 00

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USC IR 369 - Lecture 4 - Another War and its Legacy

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