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Do opposites attract?
No. Commonalities better predict happiness & longevity.
Empirical research starts with a...
rational question, then moves to an empirical question.
logic, enthusiasm
Through the senses, data-based inferences.
What is modern science?
-System of Knowledge -General Truths -Applies the Scientific Method
What is the Scientific Method?
-Systematic Pursuit of Knowledge -Problem Formation -Hypotheses -Observation & Experimentation
Values of Science
Verifiable -replicable Cumulative -built on past research Parsimonious -simple is better Public
What are the Psychological Perspectives?
Structuralism Functionalism Associativism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanistic Cognitive Revolution
*Wundt -Understand structure of "Mind" by component parts/feelings/sensations -Introspection
*William James -What do we do and why? -Knowledge is validated by it's usefulness -openness to diversity increased methodology
*Edward Thorndike -How events or ideas become associated in the "mind" -Development of association between stimuli and responses
*Sigmund Freud -Psychological disorders were due to unconscious conflicts -Raise conflicts to the "surface"
*John Watson -Started as a backlash to Psychoanalysis -Stimulus-Response relationship -"Observable Behavior" -1920's to 1960's
*Carl Rogers *Abraham Maslow -Positive Psychology -Try to be the best person you can be, etc. Emphasis: -environment -acceptance 1960's
Cognitive Revolution
Emphasis: -Internal Thought AND -Human Behavior -not positive or negative -everything is important -very diligent about applying the scientific method -196
What are the goals of Modern Psychology?
Describe -Human Behavior -What is happening? Explain & Understand -Why does it happen? Predict -Knowing precursors Change (control) -Alter behavior
Non-Experimental Research
Nothing is manipulated observation case study survey research
Non-Experimental Research Naturalistic Laboratory
Case Study
Non-Experimental Research -One person. Really getting into the details of JUST them. -Beneficial if talking about something very unique.
Survey Research
Non-Experimental Research -Interviews -Questionnaires
True vs. Quasi-Experimental Research
True Experimental Research
-Has random assignment
Quasi Experimental Research
-Subject selected -Useful but no cause/effect statement -e.g., Age & Gender. Example: People w/ high fiber diets have a low incidence of cancer People w/ low fiber diets ha
What are the Developmental Research Method
Longitudinal -Group of people over time. Cross-Sectional -time-periods constant -2 groups of people-different ages
What are the 2 types of forgetting?
Availability and Accessibility
When info you're trying to recover actually gets into your memory. If it didn't... Encoding failure-(it didn't get into your memory in the first place.) Decay-
Encoding Failure
info you tried to remember but didn't stick.
info you got into your memory but you can't access anymore.
a type of forgetting whether or not you are able to retrieve info that got into your brain. Retrieval Failure Interference
Retrieval Failure
example: seeing someone from high school you knew but can't remember their name. But you do remember what letter it starts with or how it sounds. This is called a "Tip of
Inability to recall different information. (Goes with accessibility.) 2 types: Retroactive Interference Proactive Interference
Retroactive Interference
When old information interferes with new information. examples: Sociology info is interfering with psych info when you change your password and can't remember what it
Proactive Interference
When new info interferes with old info. examples: You study for psychology then you studied for sociology, and you can't recall psychology anymore A friend gets married an
Types of Amnesia
2 types: Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia
Retrograde Amnesia
loss of memory of old information (name, job, your family) stereotypical soap-opera amnesia
Anterograde Amnesia
Having trouble remembering things after your brain injury (still know name and family, but can't form any new memories.
2 ways of testing memory
Direct Indirect
Direct testing of memory
Asking people to recollect information, telling them words and asking them to remember them later.
teaching people a task. Give it to them every day for a week or so. They can't remember doing that task before. However, they get progressively better at it every time the
The intentional forgetting of a painful or a traumatic experience Freud's theory There is some evidence that people can forget a traumatic event example: sexual abuse stud
Types of Encoding
A way to improve memory. The Spacing Effect Rehearsal -->Maintenance Rehearsal -->Elaborative Rehearsal Mnemonic Devices
The Spacing Effect
a type of encoding says that... --cramming is not effective --you should distribute your practice-people do much better if they space out their time studying.
Maintenance Rehearsal
A type of encoding -skipping through book or notes again -it is not very effective because it is not the amount of time you spend studying, but what you do with th
Elaborative Rehearsal
A type of encoding Prior Knowledge FB ICB SNC AAP BS FBI CBS NCAA PBS chess experts: if pieces are placed randomly then no matter who it is, can only remember
Types of Mnemonic Devices
to aid in organization Interactive Images Method of Loci Acronyms Acrostic Hierarchies
Interactive Images
a mnemonic device. concrete vs. abstract words -remember concrete words a lot better because an image is associated with it (dog, hat, cat, house) -The weirder the image, 
Method of Loci
A mnemonic device -picking a route (the way you walk to class or home) -try to link it to the info you want to remember -someone gives you their phone number but you have 
A mnemonic device -involves taking the first letter off of each of those words and putting a different word with it. ex: ROY G BIV for colors.
A mnemonic device. a meaningful sentence e.g., Order of operations: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally (Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtracti
A mnemonic device example: Memory short term memory long term memory impl
The Testing Effect
A way of retrieving information from your brain Testing is very beneficial it will increase the likelihood of remembering in the future and also help you figure out what 
Context Dependent Memory
A way of retrieving info from brain Physical Context -same context for encoding and retrieval e.g., divers see book for better info
Mental State
a way of retrieving info from brain People who study while smoking a cigarette vs. people who study while smoking marijuana. Proves that you can recall better if you're i
Context Memory
a way of retrieving info from brain -the effects are small and it won't change if you're in a different chair during the test than you are in all the classes, just being i
The relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience You know it has occurred if you observe changes in behaviors or take exams.
Associative Learning
Learning that two events occur together Classical Conditioning Observational Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov Famous incidental study of learning. Fed dogs, rang a bell, the dogs would salivate when they heard a bell not just when they ate.
Unconditioned Stimulus
Classical Conditioning (UCS) A stimulus that naturally triggers a response.
Unconditioned Response
Classical Conditioning (UCR) a naturally occurring response to a UCS. example: food (UCS) naturally triggers salivation response (UCR) neutral stimulus (tone) brings no salivation response.
Conditioned Stimulus
Classical Conditioning (CS) A neutral stimulus that triggers a conditional response (CR) after being associated with an US.
Conditioned Response
Classical Conditioning (CS) A learned response to a previously neutral (now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Before, During, and After Conditioning
Before Conditioning: UCS (Food) --> UCR (salivation) During Conditioning: Neutral Stimulus (tone) +UCS (food)-->UCR (salivation) After Conditioning: CS (tone)-->CR (salivation)
Phases of Classical Conditioning
Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery
Classical Conditioning The phase when learning occurs by associating a CS with a UCS so that the UCS comes to elicit a CR.
A phase of Classical Conditioning Reduced responding when the CS no longer signals the impending presence of a UCS. e.g., present tone (CS) without food (UCS) over and over & salivation happens less and less often.
Spontaneous Recovery
A phase of Classical Conditioning reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR. e.g., after extinction, wait a few hours. Then sound tone, the dogs tend to salivate again.
Law of Effect
Behaviors + favorable consequences=more likely to reoccur Behaviors + unfavorable consequences=less likely to reoccur
B.F. Skinner
behaviorist operant conditioning
Operant Behavior
operates (acts) on environment produces consequences
Positive Reinforcer
giving something that is desired
Negative Reinforcer
taking away something that is not desired
Positive Punishment
giving something that is not desired
Negative Punishment
Taking away something that is desired
Primary Reinforcer
Something that satisfies a basic need (food, shelter, warmth, etc.)
Secondary Reinforcer
AKA conditioned reinforcer on the way to satisfying a basic need
A depressed patient receives extra attention after a suicide attempt
positive reinforcer
A man receives a shock while attempting to rewire an electrical outlet
Positive Punishment
A child loses his video game privelege because he got in a fight at school
Negative punishment
A smoker reduces withdrawal craving when he/she lights up again
Negative reinforcer

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