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associative learning
Learning that certain events occur together
classical conditioning
link 2 or more stimuli & anticipate events (use tuning fork [conditioned stimulus] to make dog think hes getting food[conditioned response])
psych should Observe Behaviors  (no thoughts feelings or motives)
change in behavior due to experience.
neutral stimulus(NS)
stimulus that does not evoke a response
unconditioned response (UR)
the unlearned, Naturally Occurring Response (salivation when food is in the mouth.)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
naturally and automatically-TRIGGERS a response.
conditioned response (CR)
conditioned stimulant causes conditioned response
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
The initial learning stage in classical conditioning, during which the conditioned response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
higher-order conditioning
The process in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus and the neural stimulus takes on the ability to elicit the conditioned response
if you dont continue practices, person stops responding
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Responding to a stimuli that is similar
respondent behavior
is that which occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
operant chamber
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
in operant conditioning,  any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli,  such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
negative reinforcement
increasing behavior by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. 
.  primary reinforcer
satisfied through biological needs [food, water, sex]
conditioned reinforcer
a learned reinforcer that gets its power by association with a primary reinforcer
partial (or intermittent) reinforcement schedule
reinforcing of a behavior some but not all of the time
Fixed‐Ratio Schedule
reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made
variable-ratio schedule
reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed-interval schedule
reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedule
reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
observational learning
learning by observing others.
observing and imitating  (child imitates what parents do)
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
Prosocial behavior
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
putting info INTO memory (requires effort/attention/meaning) (no repetition)
the retention of encoded information over time
getting information out of memory storage
Sensory Memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
short-term memory
activated   holds a few items briefly, (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten)
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned information such as word meanings.
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
mental pictures/ a powerful aid to effortful processing especially when combined with semantic encoding
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
ionic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be neural basis for learning and memory
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the loss of memory
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
deja vu
that eerie sense that " i've experienced this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
misinformation effect
incorporation misleading information into one's memory of an event
Source Amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. also called source misattribution. Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
sensory memory
ionic& echoic
John Watson
believes everything is based o environment conducted the Little Albert experiment
context effects
situation During retrieval is same during encoding (encoding& retrieval match)
Spacing Effect
cramming not effective distribute practice w breaks
testing effect
assess knowledge  strengthen memory
encoding failure
never learned in the first place
retrieval failure
memory lost IN system  (rather than From) (tip of the tongue)
proactive interference
OLD info impacts ability to learn NEW
retroactive interference
NEW info makes it harder to remember OLD
loss of memory abilities
retrograde amnesia
new memories affected temporal gradient
anterograde amnesia
unable to form new memories (nothing transferred to long term) (impaired explicit) (cant remember new facts)
declarative (explicit)
consciously available  (facts events)
procedural (implicit)
skills how to do something
cause/effect relationships
the experiment
pushing painful memories out of conscious awareness 
operant conditioning 
learning based on consequences (law of effect thorndike) responses by + outcomes are repeated responses - outcomes NOT repeated
Positive reinforcement
giving something they do like for doing something they dont like (giving child candy for cleaning their room)
negative reinforcement
taking away something they dont like (take away a chore for cleaning their room)
positive punishment
punish for doing something bad (child swears, get soap in mouth)
negative punishment
take away something dont like (take away car privelages for not doing chores)
physical punishment
spanking children teaches kids aggression
learning to associate neutral stimulus with naturally occurring event
learning from consequences
post traumatic stess disorder cant stop thinking about traumatic event
source amnesia
memory is a reconstruction of events
single blind condition
admin told who suspect is
double blind
does not know who suspect is
unconditioned stimulus & response
unlearned naturally occurring 
frontal lobe watching somebody yawn, you will yawn

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