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Correlation
the relationship between two variables
Frontal Lobe
judgement, planning, self control, generated movements and speech production
Parietal Lobes
receives sensory input for touch and body position
Occipital Lobe
visual processing, visual cortex-assembles visual input into meaningful info
Temporal Lobe
Auditory processing, auditory cortex- processes auditory info
Serotonin
mood, sleep, hunger, arousal
Broca's Area
left hemisphere, frontal lobe(motor area) damage: cant produce speech
Wernicke's Area
Left hemisphere, temporal lobe(auditory cortex) Damage: cant comprehend speech
Threshold
Point where you can actually detect something 
Depressants
alcohol, barbiturates, opiates that calm neural activity and slow body functions.
Effects of Depressants
slower neural processing, memory disruption, reduce self-awareness and self control
Stimulants
Caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, ecstasy and meth that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Hallucinogens
Psychedelic drugs, LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory imput
Transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another
Classical conditioning
Passive learning, natural learning, respondent behavior 
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that naturally triggers a response 
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
naturally occurring response to UCS
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The originally neutral stimulus (NS) that comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned Response (CR)
The learned response to a previously neural stimulus (CS)
Operant Conditioning
Active learning: reinforcement/ punishment
Positive Reinforcement
addition of a desirable stimulus 
Negative Reinforcement 
Removal of an aversive stimulus
Positive Punishment
Addition of an aversive stimulus ex: spanking
Negative Punishment
Removal of a desirable stimulus  Ex: DUI, getting grounded
Implicit Memory
Memory for procedures and skill acquisition ex: driving a car
Explicit Memory
Memory for facts and experiences Ex: first kiss
Where are long term memories stored?
Cerebellum, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cortex
If you destroyed hippocampus...
You would loose ability to transfer short term memories to long term memories
Retrograde Amnesia
Inability to recall the past
Anterograde Amnesia 
Inability to form new memories
ID
pleasure principle, immediate gradification
Ego
Reality principle, seeks to satisfy the "id" in a realistic way, balances id and superego
Superego
Moral principle, seeks internalized ideal's
Prejudice
unjustified or incorrect ATTITUDE towards an human based on the individual's membership of a social group
Discrimination
the BEHAVIOR or actions towards a human or group of humans based on sex/race/ social class, etc.
Sterotype
a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people
Hierarchy of needs: Physiological
breathing, food, water
Hierarchy of needs: Safety
security of body, employment, resources 
Hierarchy of needs: Love/Belonging
friendship, family, sexual intimacy 
Hierarchy of needs: Esteem
Self-esteem, confidence, achievement 
Hierarchy of needs: Self-Actualization
morality, creativity, problem solving 
Self- Serving Bias
Readiness to perceive ourselves favoribly
Conformation Bias
Search for evidence that supports our theory and ignore evidence that suggests otherwise
Korsakoff's Syndrom
Symptoms: Amnesia, confabulation Causes: Alcoholism, Thiamine deficiency
Alzheimer's
Symptoms: Confusion, forgetting, paranoia Causes: Unknown, genetics
Parkinson's Disease
Destruction of dopamine producing cells Symptoms: Shaking, muscle rigidity, slow movements Causes: Unknowns
Huntington's Disease
Symptoms: Chorea-jerky body movements, loss of coordination, slowed movements Causes: Entirely genetic
Physical Cause
Can be diagnosed, can be treated, often curable
Depression
5 or more of the following for more than 2 weeks:  Depressed most of day,loss of interest,weight loss/gain, sleep change, loss of energy, feeling worthless, reoccurring thoughts of death Women are twice as vulnerable
Bipolar Disorder
Alternations between depression and mania. Less need for sleep, racing thoughts, racing speech, reckless behavior. Mania last longer than depression
Causes for Mood Disorders
Neurotransmitters: decreased serotonin
Cycle of Depression
1. Stressful experiences 2. Negative explanatory style 3. Depressed mood 4. Cognitive and behavioral changes
Schizophrenia
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Delusions, word salad, hallucinations
Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD)
persistant and free floating tense, worried and uneasy feelings
Panic Disorder
Recurrent, extreme intense anxiety attacks
Panic Attack
Minutes long intense fear that something bad is going to happened Symptoms: irregular heartbeat, chest pain, shortness of breath, choking, trembling
Phobias
Persistent, irrational, aviodance of a feared thing
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessions: Unwanted, repetitive thoughts Compulsions: actions or rituals, focus on germs, precision, counting
PTSD
anxiety lasting for at least 4 weeks after severely threatening, uncontrollable event Symptoms: intense anxiety, flashbacks, nightmares, social withdrawal
Dissociative Identity Disorder
2 or more distinct identities that alternate control. Different voices
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Lack of conscience, sometimes aggressive, fearless behavior
Characteristics of addiction
obsession, loss of control, negative consequence, denial
Anorexia Nervosa (AN)
weight less than 85% of healthy standard, fear of fat/weight gain, distorted body image
Bulimia Nervosa (BN)
Objective binge episodes, body shape and weight disturbances
Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
Objective binge episodes, loss of control, distress surrounding bingeing

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