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UNC-Chapel Hill GEOG 111 - Forced Lifting

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GEOG 111 1st Edition Lecture 21 Outline of Last Lecture I. Types of uplifa. Convective lifi. Stability of atmosphereII. Review for Exam #2Outline of Current Lecture I. Most missed questions from exam 2II. Controls on the ELR and convectionIII. Forced lifa. Orographic lifingb. Frontal lifc. Low level convergenced. Upper level divergenceCurrent LectureMost missed questions from Exam 2:#6 – The lapse rate is the rate of temperature drop with increasing altitude. Which of the following situations is associated with the highest rate? Clear day#16 – What time of the year should a sea breeze be the strongest? Spring#17 – Surface winds over land blow at a 30-45 degree angle with respect to the isobars over a long distance.#27 – If the temperature of the air decreases, the saturation vapor pressure will decrease and the vapor pressure will be unaffected.#30 – The 500 mb heights are greatest over the low latitudes.I. Controls on the ELR and convectiona. Daytime radiational warmingi. Lower tropospheric warmingii. Bottom of column warms upb. Nighttime radiational coolingi. Lower tropospheric coolingii. Atmosphere becomes much more stablec. Approaching 500 mb troughi. Middle tropospheric coolingThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. More likely to get convection (thunderstorms)iii. Unstable atmosphered. Approaching 500 mb ridgei. Middle tropospheric warminge. What is the stability of the atmosphere when there is an inversion?i. Air strongly resists moving in a vertical senseii. Atmosphere is completely stableiii. We see inversions when there is warmer air alofiv. Under ridges (clear weather)II. Forced lifa. Orographic lifing – tends to be cloudier and more wet on wind-ward side of a mountain rangei. Air lifs on one side of a mountain  reaches its saturation level  clouds/precipitation form  air sinks down the other side of the mountain  warming and drying out as it goes downb. Frontal lifi. Two air masses with different densities that do not mix (warm air moves up and over the cold air)ii. Two scenarios:1. Warm air is stable – as warm air is forced upward it’s cooling adiabatically and will eventually cool to saturation  light precipitation2. Warm air is unstable – same except when air reaches saturation  convection  thicker clouds/ heavier rain/thunderstormsc. Low level convergence- forced lifingi. Converging at low levels in the atmosphere, it needs an outlet, must convect upward1. Ex. Clouds from the sea-breeze frontd. Upper level divergence- forced lifingi. Opposite of convergenceii. If air is pulling apart from itself, eventually there will be no air lef in the area of divergenceiii. Accelerating winds exiting a trough cause air to rise1. Forces air upward through the


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