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UNC-Chapel Hill GEOG 111 - Temperature cont'd

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GEOG 111 1st Edition Lecture 12 Outline of Last Lecture I. Combating global warmingII. Temperaturea. Heat vs. temperatureOutline of Current Lecture I. Temperaturea. Relationshipsi. Heat vs. Temperatureii. Urban vs. Rural landscapesb. Measuring temperatureCurrent LectureI. Temperaturea. Relationshipsi. Heat vs. temperature1. Heat is a form of energya. Atmosphere’s strong transmissivity absorbs radiation2. Temperature is a measure of molecular activitya. The average speed of molecules or vibrations in a solidb. After applying heat to a material, temperature will rise3. Three factors that control the relationship:a. Specific heat- the amount of energy required to raise one gram of a material one degrees Celsius i. Takes more energy to warm water than land (continental areas have a higher seasonal range and diurnal range than temperatures than marine areas)ii. Heating and cooling rates are inversely related to specific heatiii. Does Hatteras Island, NC or Monterey, CA have a more marine climate? Monterey, even though Hatteras has more water around it, because of ocean currents and prevailing wind directions (WE) from the Pacific Oceanb. Density- the amount of mass of a material per volume (mass/unit volume)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i. Low density structures (because there’s less material to warm up) will warm up more quickly than a high densitystructure, but they also cool more quickly at night when Q* < 01. Ex: Brick houses take longer to warm than woodshed2. Ex: Rural landscapes are dominated by vegetation and soil (somewhat lower density than urban areas) so they warm more quickly during the day/drop more quickly overnight a. However, rural landscapes aren’t necessarily warmer during the day… other factors come into playc. Water content (evaporation)- a major cooling factori. The more vegetation, the more evapotranspiration which more than negates the warmingii. Vegetation shields the area from shortwave radiation (more shaded areas)ii. Urban vs. Rural landscapes1. The urban heat island- an island where temperatures are warmer than the surrounding areas; retains heat betterb. Where should air temperatures be measured?i. Shielded from radiative effects:1. Shaded from incoming K (not in direct sunlight)2. Away from L sources that have been warmed (radiatively warmed buildings, cold ground, hot asphalt etc.)ii. Air must be ventilated (allow air to flow freely)1. Ex: problems with measuring daily max temperatures at RDU  paintingasphalt white as a way of modifying the environment for a more accurate read; herbicide was used to kill off weeds that were creating a cooling effect; Briar Creek has added to the urban heat island effect of the airportc. Apparent temperature- what it feels likei. Contributing factors: 1. Heat index2. Wind speed- “wind chill”a. How does wind create a chill? Heat moves from your body to the air; a boundary layer of thin air with low conductivity forms around your skin surface and gets very warm, when you move or when wind blows the boundary layers goes away and there’s a cooling effectb. What happens when air temperature exceeds body temperature? Sensible heat flux goes in opposite direction and heat is conducted into your skin from the atmosphere; the faster the wind the hotter it gets3. Relative humidity- an expression of how close the air is to being saturated (percent of water vapor in the


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