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UNC-Chapel Hill GEOG 111 - Topics on final exam

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GEOG 111 1st Edition Lecture 37 Outline of Last Lecture I. Tornadoes and their attributesa. Tornado StrengthII. Tornado developmentIII. Geographic distributionIV. Seasonal DistributionV. Tornado damage and safetyOutline of Current Lecture I. Topics covered on the final examII. Weather patterns associated with greatest extremesCurrent LectureI. Weather forecastinga. Forecast skillb. Forecast specificityII. Water in the Atmospherea. Phase changes of waterb. Sensible and latent heatingc. Relative humidity and dew point temperatured. Sensible and latent heat fluxesIII. Vertical Air Motionsa. Adiabatic temperature changesb. Types of liftingc. Atmospheric stability (do not need to know values of ELR/DALR/WALR); however need to identify r-ships between stability and vertical temperature changes.IV. Circumpolar Vortex & Jet Streama. Circumpolar vortex (CPV)b. Jet streamc. Seasonal changes in the strengthen/positioning of CPV and jet streamd. R-ships between surface and middle tropospheric featuresi. Cyclones/Anticyclones and Troughs/ridgesV. Wave Cyclonesa. Wave cyclone, fronts, and air masses (warm & cool sectors)b. Wind directions, vertical air motionsc. Relationship with jet stream and middle tropospheric troughd. Precipitation regionse. Cyclone tracksVI. Ice Storms and Snow stormsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.a. Different types of frozen precipitation and the vertical temperature profiles associated with each.b. Processes associated with precipitation types during their descent i. Warm nose and cold wedge featuresc. Weather pattern that produces big stormsVII. Thunderstormsa. Squall lines & air mass thunderstormsb. Thunderstorm featuresc. Where they occur relative to wave cyclone & frontsd. Connection with atmospheric stabilityVIII.Tornadoesa. All material IX. Weather Extremesa. Lowest temperature  arctic high the day before; strong cold air advection due to strong pressure gradient between the Arctic High and developing low off of the New England Coasti. Clear skies (perfect radiational cooling) and calm winds (no mixing down of warmer air aloft) the morning of the minimum ii. Snow is a great insulator that keeps the geothermal heat from rising to the surface1. Snow is a perfect emitter of infrared radiationiii. Frost hollows1. Cold air is more dense and flows down the ridge into the valleyb. Highest temperature  warm advection ahead of the cold fronti. High solar elevation due to low latitude1. Strong solar insolation2. Absence of wind or sea breeze makes it warmerii. Urban landscape plus drained wetlands westc. Heaviest rainfalli. Warm temperatures that can hold more moistureii. Approaching cold front: cold frontal precipitation due to low-level convergence and convectiond. Greatest snowfalli. Strong 500 mb troughii. Wrap around precipitation with developing wave cycloneiii. High elevation  less snow meltiv. Orographic lifting increases precipitation ratesv. Strong cold advection from Lake Michigane. Strongest tornadoi. Typically occur in warm sector ahead of cold frontii. Very warm and moistiii. Strong winds aloft (strong wind shear)iv. Approaching 500 mb trough f. Most lightning strikesi. Thunderstorms develop on warm, moist side of slow-moving cold


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