UT Arlington PSYC 1315 - Chapter 8 Notes (5 pages)

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Chapter 8 Notes



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Chapter 8 Notes

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5
School:
University of Texas at Arlington
Course:
Psyc 1315 - Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology Documents

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Chapter 8 Notes Concepts are mental categories that are used to group objects events and characteristics Humans have a special ability for creating categories to help us make sense of information in our world Hemmer Steyvers 2009 Shea Krug Tobler 2008 We know that apples and oranges are both fruits Th e prototype model emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item refl ects a certain concept they compare the item with the most typical item s in that category and look for a family resemblance with that item s properties Birds generally fl y sing and build nests so we know that robins and sparrows are both birds Problem solving means fi nding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available Problem solving entails following several steps and overcoming mental obstacles Algorithms are strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem Algorithms come in diff erent forms such as formulas instructions and the testing of all possible solutions Bocker Briesemeister Klau 2009 Voyvodic Petrella Friedman 2009 We use algorithms in cooking by following a recipe and driving by following directions to an address Heuristics are such shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer Cranley others 2009 Redondo others 2009 In your Scrabble game you know that if you have a Q you are going to need a U If you have an X and a T the T is probably not going to come right before the X In this situation heuristics allow you to be more effi cient than algorithms would Reasoning is the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions Reasoning is involved in problem solving and decision making It is also a skill closely tied to critical thinking Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from specifi c observations to make generalizations Tenenbaum Griffi ths Kemp 2006 Inductive reasoning is an important way that we form beliefs about the world For instance having turned on your cell phone



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