TAMU PSYC 107 - Exam 1 Practice Problems

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Question What is the definition of psychology Practice Problems Exam 1 Answer Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Question Define classical conditioning and provide an example Answer Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response Example Pavlov s experiment with dogs where the sound of a bell neutral stimulus became associated with the presentation of food meaningful stimulus causing the dogs to salivate in response to the bell alone Question Describe the stages of sleep in the sleep cycle Answer The sleep cycle consists of several stages Stage 1 Light sleep theta waves present Stage 2 Deeper sleep characterized by sleep spindles and K complexes Stage 3 and 4 Deep sleep known as slow wave sleep characterized by delta waves These stages are often referred to as deep sleep or delta sleep REM Rapid Eye Movement sleep Characterized by rapid eye movements vivid dreams and muscle paralysis Question What are the key principles of operant conditioning Answer Reinforcement Strengthening of a behavior by the presentation of a stimulus Punishment Decrease in the likelihood of a behavior by the presentation of an aversive stimulus or removal of a pleasant stimulus Shaping Reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior Extinction Decrease in the frequency of a behavior when it is no longer reinforced Discrimination Responding differently to similar stimuli based on their different reinforcement contingencies Generalization Responding similarly to similar stimuli based on past reinforcement Question What is the difference between explicit memory and implicit memory Answer Explicit memory declarative memory involves conscious recollection of information and can be verbally expressed It includes episodic memory personal experiences and semantic memory facts and general knowledge Implicit memory non declarative memory involves unconscious retention of information and is not consciously accessible It includes procedural memory skills and procedures and priming facilitation of processing a stimulus due to prior exposure Question What is the difference between sensation and perception Sensation refers to the process by which sensory receptors detect and respond to sensory stimuli from the environment e g light waves sound waves chemicals Perception refers to the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information to give it meaning and create a conscious experience of the world Question Describe the stages of cognitive development according to Piaget s theory Answer Answer Sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years Infants learn about the world through sensory experiences and motor actions developing object permanence and basic understanding of cause and effect Preoperational stage 2 to 7 years Children develop symbolic thinking language and imagination but lack logical reasoning and conservation Concrete operational stage 7 to 11 years Children become capable of logical reasoning and mental operations such as conservation and understanding of reversibility Formal operational stage 11 years and older Adolescents and adults develop abstract thinking hypothetical reasoning and logical problem solving abilities Question Explain the bystander effect and provide an example Answer The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon where individuals are less likely to help in an emergency situation when other people are present compared to when they are alone This is often due to diffusion of responsibility where individuals feel less personally responsible to intervene when others are present Example In the case of Kitty Genovese a woman who was murdered in the presence of multiple witnesses none of whom intervened or called for help exemplifies the bystander effect Question What are the three main components of emotion according to the James Lange theory Answer The James Lange theory proposes that emotions arise from physiological arousal and behavioral responses It consists of three main components Physiological arousal Bodily changes such as increased heart rate sweating triggered by a stimulus Behavioral response Actions or behaviors exhibited in response to the stimulus Emotional experience Subjective feeling of emotion that arises as a result of interpreting the physiological arousal and behavioral response Question Explain the difference between the id ego and superego according to Freud s psychoanalytic theory Answer Id The primitive instinctual part of the personality that operates on the pleasure principle seeking immediate gratification of basic needs and desires Ego The rational decision making part of the personality that operates on the reality principle balancing the demands of the id superego and external reality Superego The moralistic part of the personality that internalizes societal and parental standards striving for moral perfection and guilt avoidance

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TAMU PSYC 107 - Exam 1 Practice Problems

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