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Introduction to Psychology Exam 1 Review Topics Definition and scope of psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Historical perspectives Major schools of thought in psychology including structuralism functionalism behaviorism Gestalt psychology psychoanalysis and cognitive psychology Contemporary approaches Biological psychodynamic behavioral cognitive humanistic sociocultural and evolutionary perspectives in psychology Research Methods in Psychology Scientific method Steps involved in conducting scientific research including formulating hypotheses designing studies collecting data analyzing results and drawing conclusions Experimental design Independent and dependent variables experimental and control groups random assignment and experimental bias Research ethics Principles of ethical research conduct including informed consent confidentiality debriefing and protection of participants rights Biological Bases of Behavior Structure and function of the nervous system Components of the central nervous system brain and spinal cord and peripheral nervous system somatic and autonomic nervous systems Neurons and neurotransmitters Structure and function of neurons synaptic transmission and the role of neurotransmitters in communication between neurons Brain anatomy and functions Major brain structures cerebrum cerebellum brainstem and their functions in controlling behavior cognition emotion and sensory processing Sensation and Perception Sensory processes Reception transduction transmission and perception of sensory information from the environment vision hearing touch taste smell Perceptual processes Organization interpretation and integration of sensory information to create meaningful experiences and perceptions of the world Perceptual illusions and phenomena Examples of perceptual illusions e g visual illusions auditory illusions and perceptual phenomena e g figure ground relationship depth perception Learning and Memory Classical conditioning Pavlov s experiments with conditioned reflexes principles of classical conditioning unconditioned stimulus conditioned stimulus unconditioned response conditioned response Operant conditioning Skinner s experiments with reinforcement and punishment principles of operant conditioning reinforcement punishment shaping extinction Memory processes Encoding storage and retrieval of information in short term memory long term memory and sensory memory Cognitive Processes Attention and consciousness Selective attention divided attention and the relationship Problem solving and decision making Strategies for problem solving decision making between attention and consciousness heuristics biases and errors Language and thinking The relationship between language and thought cognitive development and theories of language acquisition Developmental Psychology Lifespan development The study of psychological growth and change across the lifespan including infancy childhood adolescence adulthood and old age Developmental theories Piaget s theory of cognitive development Erikson s psychosocial theory Kohlberg s theory of moral development and attachment theory Influences on development Biological factors environmental influences socialization culture and individual differences in development Social Psychology Social cognition The study of how people perceive interpret and understand social information and social situations Attitudes and persuasion Formation change and expression of attitudes persuasion techniques and social influence processes Group dynamics Group formation group structure group decision making conformity obedience and group behavior Abnormal Psychology Definition and classification of psychological disorders Criteria for diagnosing mental disorders according to the DSM 5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Major categories of psychological disorders Mood disorders anxiety disorders psychotic disorders personality disorders and substance related disorders Causes and treatment of psychological disorders Biological psychological and sociocultural factors contributing to the development of mental disorders and approaches to treatment psychotherapy medication etc Health Psychology Biopsychosocial model of health Understanding health and illness as the result of interactions between biological psychological and social factors Stress and coping The physiological and psychological responses to stress coping strategies and the impact of stress on health and well being Health behavior change Theories and models of health behavior change strategies for promoting healthy behaviors and interventions for preventing illness and promoting wellness

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TAMU PSYC 107 - Exam 1 Review

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