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Replication of Genetic code Strand separation occurs first Each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new strand synthesis is catalyzed by enzymes DNA polymerases Newly made DNA molecule has one daughter strand and one parent strand DNA polymerasecpotay DNA prrmase DNA ligase RNA Primer Lagging g a sEs cid 15483 it THBk1TT ITTyHTTiMiE o s qm aa i k m Okazaki fragment g DNA polymerase GG Topoisomerase Pas Helicase single strand Binding proteins 5 1111B k gg i Strand Loool 00 1116am Dodona 3 Daughter strands two strands separate Base stacking lost Association Annealing Palindrome AM TEE T TT iF 9 T9 f AF Had i i Palindromic sequence nucleic acid sequence in a double stranded DNA or RNA molecule wherein reading in a certain direction on one strand matches the sequence reading in the same direction on the complementary strand strand oubienenxatnormai temperatures Two DNA strands dissociate at elevated temp Dissociation Denaturation melting DNA Denaturation HY M 1M k H Genetic code remains intact f E k i g Denaturation o Partially denatured DNA Double helical DNA Annealing Marika Association of strands by basepa mg separation of strands H bonds broken covalent bonds remain intact Two strands re anneal when tempts lowered kg Reversible thermal denaturation annealing form the basis for polymerase H MH g F k i separated strands of DNA in random coils chain reaction Factors Affecting DNA Denaturation 100 80 J s go g 410 cid 15482 U 20 is 060 70 I 90 8 0 Tm C 1 00 110 Midpoint of melting Tm depends on base composition High CG C Tm Denaturation of large DNA molecules not uniform AT rich regions melt at a lower temp than GC rich regions Tm depends on DNA Length Longer DNA has higher Tm Important for short DNA Tm depends on pH and ionic strength High salt increases Tm pH extremes acidic basic destabilize DNA Central Dogma transcription a an a cid 15483 00 Go O r 00 protein RNA amino acid chain DNA bag RNA 58 code for protein Transfer RNA tRNA Ribosomal RNAIRRNA catalyze protein synthesis Messenger RNA mRNA Types of RNA E cid 15482 cid 15482 cid 15483 q q g B qq ggqg 94 8 4 gene a adaptors between mp naanaamnoaaasdunngpraansyn me qq M i gang a gg a y qq gg Casa r tECLEoauW a L qq OMB BA Book E3 cid 15482 cid 15482 cid 15482 Regulates gene expression BHkB bathe f MicroRNA miRNA Flamsteed 40504255b g ma g m sooooooo was

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