BU BI 421 - Lesson 1 Nucleotides Structure and Function

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Functions of Nucleotide and Nucleic Acids backbone cid 15483 a g as cid 15482 anne g Thymine Uracil G cid 15482 9 m H gq cytosine Hi DNA RNA Nucleotides Nucleosides Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides used for s wa e sene i in Transmission of genetic info mRNA Processing of genetic info ribozymes Protein synthesis c RNAanarRNA nucieo naesareaisouseainmonomertormforceuuiarfunc i ms Energy for metabolism ATP NHZ 0 o EE io i i Enzyme cofactors NAD base OH OH Nucleotide is Purineor pyrimidine signal transduction CAMP Phosphate 0 1 0 1 P cid 15483 N ICH I 11 HCI y H HC 3N si 4C Nucleoside Phosphate pentose pentose 91 Purine Y H C Nitrogenous base Pentose Nitrogenous base Derivatives of pyrimidine purine Nitrogen containing hetero aromatic molecules Planar almost planar Absorb UV light 250 270mm H bonding donors acceptors Pyrimidine H N i 13 SCH 11 GCH HCZ Pyrimidine H nY c Hd2 11 4C 3N 8CH a N H Purine cytosine thymine found in DNA Cytosine Uracil found mRNA Purine Adenine Guanine found in DNA 113nA Carbon Nitrogen atoms onthe nitrogenous base are in cyclic format MHz 0 c i CH 11 1N 1 CH C N 11 CH I O N H Cytosine H Thymine CDNA pyrimidines 0 fH CH HN 1 1 1 Uracil RNA MHz I In 14 11 C HEIN CH 1 N H Adenine 0 11 ch Y HN I IN zN 11 C CH N H Guanine purines Pentose B d rlbofuranose in RNA B 2 deoxy d rlbofuranose in DNA OH H 1 F H C 1 CHZOH Aldehyde OH n c a i t IE t 1 H C OH OH OH OH Bfuranose s si H0CHH h n I OH H OH 011 1 Phosphate Group G charged at neutral pH yypyanyama mg g pan O O gPd 0 nucleoside 1 nucleoside monophosphate nucleoside diphosphate www ampn gpna pentose Base glycosidic OH ribose H deoxyribose 3 0 Purines MHz T R Adenine ri Guanine Pyrimidines 0 NY N 40 N R R ay N Tho R gym n NHZ T Nucleic acids built using the 5 triphosphate s Version of the nucleotide NOMENCLATURE ATP GTP TTP CTP Two of the three phosphates used for building nucleic acids forma leaving group and completed nucleic acids contain one phosphate moiety per molecule Nucleotide and Nucleic Acid Nomenclature Base Nucleoside Nucleotide Nucleic acid Maybe attached to other positions for specialized function B N Glycosidic Bond Nucleotides pentose ring is attached to nitrogenous baseman glycosidic bond Bond formed 10 anomeric carbon of sugar in B configuration Bond Isin position Nl pyrimidines position N9 purines purines Adenine Guanine pyrimidines cytosine Thymine Adenosine Deoxyadenosine Adenylate Deoxyadenylate Guanosine Deoxyguanosine Guanylate Deoxyguanylate cytidine Deoxycytidine Cytidylate Deoxycytidylate RNA DNA Thymidine or Deoxythymidine Thymidylateor Deoxythymldylate RNA DNA RNA DNA DNA RNA Bond Is quite stable toward hydrolysis especially pyrimidines bond Cleavage catalyzed by acid Uracil Uridine Urldylate conformation Relatively free rotation can occur around N glycosidic bond in free nucleotides Angle near 0 corresponds 10 syn conformation Angle near 180 corresponds 10 anti conformation Anti conformation found in normal B DNA 3 43 41 1 TCH pmydyne NF 3M Purine CH iii N MHz cid 15482 n OH OH syn adenosine OH anti adenosine Ots a JEG 0806 73 Base o 4 gaps as 6 2 Goa 8662 g 80 3 Deoxyribonucleotide MHz N N N HzH NH Nda 1 2 Niko g 9 o p o d lzodt IE 9 H H g Nucleotide symbols Nucleoside Deoxyadenyldate deoxyadenosine s monophosphate A dA dAMP Deoxyadenosine Deoxyguanylate deoxyguanosine 5 monophosphate G dGdGMP Deoxyguanosine Deoxythymldylate Cdeoxythmldlne 5 monophosphate IDIDTMP Deoxythymidine OH H Deoxycytidyiate deoxycytidine s monophosphate C dGdCMP Deoxycytidine Deoxyribonucleotide Ribonucleotide 9 MHz Ng in 0 14 OH HN 1MHz Fido N 0 p 0 CHzo o r io Nato OH OH g NH Nucleotide Adenylate ladenoslne Guang at guanosine S monophosphate s monophosphate symbols Nucleoside AsAMP Adenosine GGMP Guanosine OH OH uridylatecurldine s monophosphate chump uridine Cytidylate cytidine g monophosphate c CMP cytidine Ribonucleotide s

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