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00C NH No binding and n r n ooo H NH 00C Enzymes Biological catalysts Increased reaction rates Globular Proteins RNA can catalyze reactions Ribozymes ribosomal RNA study of enzymatic processes Oldest field in biochem C late 1700 s Biocatalysts us Over Inorganic Catalysts Greater reaction specificity avoids side products Milder reaction conditions conducive to conditions in cells Faster reaction rates biologically useful timeframe pH 7 37 C MHz capacity for regulation control of biological pathways Coo Coo OH Kooi 0 Coo Metabolites hare Various potential pathways of decomposition Chorismate 00 4 COE Enzymes make the desired one most favorable OH Enzyme Substrate Complex Selectivity Enzymatic Catalysts Enzymes do not affect equilibrium Ikea Enzymes cannot affect free energy IAG substrate f gs owreac 1onsllotsol yg g gmym mang ggna egqgp a gg slightly as substrate activation of energy barriers aqm qgqp G surmounted Enasmesmcreasereac iionra esmbyaeorea mg e substrate entering Enzyme enzyme complex Enzyme complex Bf lGM U i i i Eddard the active site k n e p 1k Enzyme Ratelkimcrease 10s Cyclophilln carbonic anhydrase 10 trlosephosphatesomerase IO carboxypeptidase A Phosphogklcomutase succinyl CoA transferase Urease Ip 10 10 orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase Transition state 5 substrate f product E enzyme s HE Found state Reaction coordinate Transition state 4 P reaction coordinate Enzyme active sites complimentary 10 transition state stronger interactions with transition state vs ground state Clower activation Largely AH enthalpy effect Enzymes Lower G Organize reactive groups close proximity proper orientation llncatalyzed biomolecular reactions 2 free reactants single restricted transition State entropically unfavorable conversion llncatalyzed Uni molecular reactions flexible reactant rigid transition State entropically unfavorable Conversion catalyzed reactions Enzyme uses binding energy of substrates organizes reactants 1 a fairly rigid ES complex Entropy cost paid during binding Rigid reactant complex entropically neutral conversion Enzymes bind transition states best

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