BU BI 421 - Lesson 5 Signal Transduction

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Biological Role Signals from the environment beyond plasma membrane changes in cells composition function differentiation antibody production Signaling Types growth strength and sexual asexual cell division Neurotransmitters Antigens Hormones Light Touch Pheromones Membrane bound soluble protein protein complex exerts a physiological effect Intrinsic effect after binding its natural ligand Receptors Signal Interaction Message Translation to cells Examples of the Effects ofReceptor AgonistBinding 3 2 I Agonist Agonist Agonist Agonist Na agiggleisagalallaparaalaaaaaaaaaaaallgainare seke senterTerroristen trie Protein Actionof conductance ActIVatIOn Activation of G protein coupled receptors Epinephrine receptor Enzyme linked receptors Insulin receptors Ligand gated on channels Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Activation ofActivation oftranscriptionand cell signaling cell signaling translation Other membrane receptors Receptors Bind Specific Ligands Integrin receptors Nuclear receptors Steroid receptors Typical Ilgands small cons ferric Ion bacterial ferric receptor Organic molecules Polysaccharides adrenalin epinephrine receptor heparin fibroblasts growth factor Peptides Proteins Insulin Insulin recept or vascular endothelial growth factor VEGFreceptor fit Response b Amplification when enzymes activate enzymes a Specificity signal molecule fits binding site on its mplementaryreceptortothe thenumberofaffectedonthe enme enzyme cascade molecules increases 10 Integration when effects on a metabolic d Desensitization adaptation signal receptor activation triggerfeet s Off Itfrom the cell surface the receptor or removes tothe arsenaSunreminihaveonwecannottheene inee agestir nortmeane whentheenzymacteFar Se message Is degraded before Itcan diffuse to distant points so the response is If localized response Message Massage Response affinities form diverse C Modularity proteins with multivalentsignal signaling complexes from interchangeable parts Phosphorylation provides Interaction only local and brief reversible points of I conse

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