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Carbohydrates Formula Cn Hao n Produced by CO 11 1 0 via photosynthesis Range small glyceraldehyde Mia 90g moi large amylopectin Mix 200 000 000g MOI Variety of functions Energy source energy storage structural component lcellwaii exoskeleton t t Informational molecules in cell signaling H OH H OH CHZOH CHZOH covalently linked with proteins lipids H SO C H d OH H C OH I 1 H 1 M OH C 0 1 H C OH 1 H Aldose ketose carbohydrate Nomenclature Carbohydrates Functional group 1 of carbon atoms Suffix C ose Basic 7 of carbon atoms in carbs 1 Ose 10 9 0 Example 3 carbons those common Functional groups All carbs had a carbonyl functional group Carbohydrates can be constitutional Isomers ketones ketose Aldehydes aldose Aldose 73 carbon carbs aldehyde functionality ketose 73 carbon carbs ketone functionality H 0 14 G H c OH 1 1 H H f OH c o I H I I H H C OH H C OH Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxy acetone caido riosejcke o rios es H 1 GO I I H 1 EO 1 HO C H HO C H HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H I KO I 1 1 H 1 CIO 1 H C OH 1 I I H C OH I CHZOH D Glucose Aldose Hexose Aldohexose CHZOH I GO I 1 1 H C OH 1 CTKOH D fructose Ketose Hexose Ketohexose H C OH 1 CHZOH D Glyceraldehyde Aldose Those Aldotrlose H C OH I 0 1201 1 D frythrose Aldose Tetrose Aldotetrose H C OH 1 CHZOH Dttrabinose Aldose Pentose Aldopentose Enantiomers stereoisomers that are non superimposable mirror images Carbohydrates Can Be Stereoisomers E ld a q carbonsioarnoniaesisnaieaas in mn cid 15483 CHzOH dCH Oft Example L and D glucose have the same water solubility L Isomers of sugar are enantiomers Sugars contain many chiral centers only one is most distant from the Most hexoses in living organisms are D stereoisomers Some simple sugars occur 1hL form L arabinose D Mannose galactose lepimersof D glucose DMannosetbgalac osecdlastereome rs Otc H H 2 OH HO DEH HO 4 H H 5014 CHZOH 0 4 1 1 HO 42 1 1 H 43 01 1 H C 401 1 HO CEH 1 CHZOH D Galactose 1 Galactose Epimers Stereoisomers that differ atone Chiral center not mirror images are diastereomers Diastereomers different physical properties Water solubility melting temp D Aldoses 3 carbons 4 carbons 5 carbons 4 0 1 4 0 g Hypo H 4 01 1 Hyde 1 10 4 4 H f OH g H g OHHO o HH g OHH C OHHO j HHO i tt H q OHH yd OHH f OHH f OHH i tt H f OH CHZOH Hy 0 HO f H 1 0 CHZOH CHZOH CHZOH CHzOH CHZOH Hypo H C OH HZOH D Glyceraldehyde D Erythrose D Threose D Ribose D Arabinose b Xylose D Lyxose 6 carbons 4 0 g g 4 0 4 0 Hypo 4 Hyo 4 H c OHAO d HH f OHHO C HH f OHHO g HH q OHHO c tt H fc OHH f OHHO q HHO f HH f OHH f OHHO i tt 10 4 1 1 H g OHH f OHH f OHH f OHHO i HHO c HHO f HH i tt H f OMH f OHH f OHH f OHH g OHH f OHH f OHH f OHf tk CHZOH D Glucose DMamnosepfulosebldoseDGalactosep la ose pttltrose CHZOH CHZOH D Aldose CHZOH CHZOH 9 1201 1 CHZOH OH 1 CHO 1 1 10 1 1 1 10 1 1 1 41 4 4 04 HIC OH 1 HZOH DMannose Cepimeratc 2 CHO 1 HI OH HO C H H C OH 31 41 s 4 C OH I GCHZOH D Glucose H C OH Ho C H CHO 21 31 41 HO C H 1 HI OH GCHZOH D Galactose Cepimeratci 4 D Ketoses 3 carbons CHZOH 1 0 HZOH Dihydroxyacetone 4 carbons CHZOH 4 0 H f OH CHZOH D Erythrulose s carbons 6 carbons 9 120 F H I 1 1 1 04 CHZOH Ribulose 41 1201 1 4 0 H OH CHZOH HO H b Xyllllose CHZOH 4 0 1 1 OH 1 1 1 04 OH H CHZOH ppsicose CHZOH 0 1 H OH 1 10 1 H OH H CHZOH CHZOH d o 10 1 1 1 H f OH 1 1 1 OH CHZOH fructose CHZOH 4 0 I 1 10 1 1 HO H H H OH CHZOH b sorbose D Tagatose

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