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UMass Boston COMM 480 - Midterm Study Guide Part 2

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10. What is a stereotype threat?a. Theory that these negative & devaluing media portrayals of groups impact in-groups by impairing their cognitive/educational capacitiesi. People feel stress/worry about self-stereotypes for the group & possibility of conforming to stereos1. Impacts on how we performa. Threat can cause people to avoid some activities/behaviorsb. Non-stereotyped members are not affected11. What is a media stereotype?a. Mediated messages that communicate overgeneralizationsi. Mass media create cultural stereotypes & reinforce them through reproduction, # of exemplars, vividness, etc.ii. Thrive due to homogeneity in the way groups are depicted1. Especially when the group is not represented often12. How does the media both create and reinforce stereotypes?a. Answered above13. What is Lippmann’s famous quote (p. 6 of the book) and what does it mean? a. “Pictures in our heads”14. What are some reasons why media use stereotypes?a. 1. provides easy explanations for complex issuesb. 2. reflect dominant societal normsi. Motivated by profitc. 3. professional routinesi. Going through the motions; stock characters1. Established routines on who gets sourced and who is visibly seen; media organizations endorse stereosd. 4. because a media organization endorses the representation i. Ex: FOX vs. CNN depictions of immigrantse. 5. content creators have their own biasesi. Sometimes explicit, often implicit15. What is the stereotype content model? Know the dimensions, etc.a. Suggests that overall stereos about societal groups array along 2 dimensionsi. Warmth & competence1. Warm= trustworthy and friendly; intent to harm/help2. Competent= capable and assertive; capacity to act on intentionb. The way we rate people on these dimensions determines how we stereo themi. +/+ = positive stereo; based upon respect & admirationii. -/- = negative stereos; contempt-basediii. Only high on one dimension = ambivalent stereos1. High/low = paternalistic (pity-based)2. High/high = admiration3. Low/low= contemptuous4. Low/high = envious16. What is the basic premise of social learning theory?a. People learn not only by doing, but also by watching (Bandura)i. Vicarious learning1. Not only by watching what people do, but the consequences17. What is the basic premise of intergroup contact theory?a. Stereos, prejudice, & discrimination of social minorities can be reduced when members of the majority group engage in interpersonal contact with themi. Contact with out-groups promotes tolerance & acceptance under certain conditions:1. Equal status2. Share goals3. Sustained & non-superficial contact/cooperation4. Not opposed by salient authorities18. What is the mediated intergroup contact hypothesis?a. (Aka parasocial contact hypothesis?) Interaction/contact with media characters from out-groups can decrease prejudice and increase willingness to interact with people from that group through increasing knowledge, feelings of trust, and respecti. Can decrease intergroup anxiety19. What did Ortiz and Harwood find in their study that examined the mediated intergroup contact hypothesis?a. Found that exposure to will and Grace predicted low social distance toward gay people and exposure to Real World predicted lower social distancetoward black peoplei. But not effect on intergroup anxiety20. What is parasocial interaction? What is a parasocial relationship?a. Parasocial interaction: media contact can mimic interpersonal contact so that people develop some degree of an interpersonal relationship with performers or charactersi. Relationships: develop much like interpersonal ones, but are one-sided1. Have been found to have the capacity to decrease stereotyping & prejudice toward minorities (parasocial contact hypothesis)21. What is the basic premise of priming theory?a. Priming= process; exposure to an original stimulus (prime) can influence the way subsequent stimuli are understoodi. Media content affects people’s later behavior and judgements relative to the content that was processed22. What is cognitive neoassociation?a. When exposure to media content activates related constructs in the mind of audience memberi. Activation process (CN) can increase the salience of old and new info and the link between themii. For a time after exposure, we are likely to1. Think about the message-related constructs2. Apply the primed constructs in thinking about other things (accessibility)23. What are some factors that impact the strength of the prime’s effect on attitudes/behaviors?a. Intensityi. Frequency and durationb. Recencyi. Lag between priming and


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