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UMass Boston COMM 480 - Midterm Study Guide Part 3

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24. What is chronic accessibility?a. When people perceive an idea from media, it activates concepts in their mind for a brief time after but may also trigger other related thoughtsi. More frequently activated concepts develop more/stronger associative links to other constructs in long-term memory25. What is the basic premise of framing theory?a. Media tell audiences how to interpret what they see by the way they present a storyi. Frame= a central organizing idea or story line that provides meaning to an unfolding story of events1. Unifies info and turns it into a story2. Building connections between concepts3. Often relies on cultural meanings, norms, & values4. Primary effect = render specific info, images, or ideas applicable to an issue; meant to shape opinions by affecting weight 5. a. Selection, emphasis, exclusion, elaboration26. What is the basic premise of cultivation theory?a. Those who view more TV = more likely to see the world through a TV lensi. Media cultivates our perceptions/attitudes1. Ex: Mean World Syndrome27. What are the 2 cultivation processes we discussed?a. 1. mainstreamingi. Heavy viewers from diverse groups develop a common outlook based on TV exposure1. Homogenizes the audience; group differences overcome byconstant exposure to the same imagesb. 2. Resonancei. The conditions that exist when viewers’ real-life environment is like the world of TV1. The more TV depictions align with your experience, the more susceptible to its cultivating power (‘double-dose’ of the message)28. What is symbolic annihilation?a. The way cultural production & media representations ignore, exclude, marginalize, or trivialize a particular groupi. Sends symbolic message to audiences about the societal value of the people who make up that group29. What are the two categories of invisibility as described by Fryberg and Townsend?a. 1. absolute invisibility: Total absence or representationi. Limits identities for group members by limits the available representations of possible selvesb. 2. relative invisibility: absence of rich, positive representations of groupi. Also limits schematic representations of possible selvesii. May cause individuals to question their individual value or value within society30. What is intersectionality? Why does this concept matter in relation to mediastereotypes?a. Intersecting identities are important to consider when discussing how marginalized people are stereotyped in the media because those with multiple marginalized identities are stereotyped even further31. What is a content analysis? How is this method commonly applied to media stereotypes?a. Content analysis: a systematic count of empirical info (ex: how many characters per racial identity?)i. Codebook is developed with specific codes for variables that need to be measured and explanations for coders1. Codes must be mutually exclusive and exhaustiveii. Can be applied to quantitative and qualitative items32. What is social constructionism?a. Individuals' constructions of reality are biased from their own experiencei. Including outside influences (I.e., media)1. Media portrayals shape worldview, creating shared norms/realitya. Socially constructed reality becomes an acceptable definition of concepts & ideals33. What is hegemonic masculinity? a. Masculinity is requisite to power over femininityi. Marginalization of women in media through placing them in weaker roles/not leadingb. Practice of legitimizing men’s superiority34. What are Goffman’s five key areas where he compared male and female gender display?a. 1. the feminine touch (looks at hands & postures)b. 2. ritualization of subordination (passive poses)c. 3. licensed withdrawal (way males/females engage with the world aroundthem; women = less connected to media & audiences)d. 4. infantilization (girls & women are portrayed in the same way)e. 5. codes of masculinity (focus on power & assertion, leaving women in subordinating


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