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UMass Boston COMM 480 - Midterm Study Guide Part 6

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c. Effects on sexual beliefs for adolescents (18-25): i. Stereotypical film content has been connected to:1. Greater support for rape myths2. Greater beliefs that men are sex-driven3. Greater beliefs that women are sexual objectsd. Effects of sexualization for college students:i. Time spent watching TV impacts women’s self-concept (mixed findings by genre)1. Exposure to sexualized TVa. increases self-objectification for men & women (but more for women)2. Exposure to sexualized TV/magazinesa. Increases body surveillance for men (but not women)e. Effects of media sexualization for adults:i. Exposure to sexualized content is related to:1. Higher levels of body dissatisfaction (for men & women)2. Greater self-objectification (for both)3. Greater support for sexist beliefs4. Greater tolerance of sexual violence towards womenii. Experimental exposure leads both men and women to have a diminished view of women’s competence, morality, & humanity4. How is media related to children’s toy and play preferences?a. Exposure to stereotypical content reinforces gender-typed assumptions about toys/playi. Princess culture = more female stereotypical behaviorii. Superhero exposure = more play-fighting, sports, and ball-play for boys but not girlsb. Exposure to counter-stereotypical content leads toi. Less judgements about who can play with what toysii. Equal preference for male/female playmates5. How does media affect girls in relation to STEM/education?a. For female kids & adolescents, stereotypical gendered media viewing is associated withi. Lower math confidenceii. Greater body surveillanceiii. Diminished performance on math testsiv. More interest in stereotypical careersv. Less likelihood to think about women as scientists6. What are some ways transgender-inclusive media affects transgender people?a. Can allow them to recognize themselves & have role modelsi. But, portrayals:1. Are not relatable for all trans people2. Promote trans normativity3. Often omit true lived experiences4. Poke fun at them & erode confidence7. How has transgender-inclusive media been related to transnegativity? What did Orellana et al. find in their study?a. Consuming trans-inclusive TV/films = lower transphobia, more positive attitudes & emotionsb. Consuming trans fiction impacts trans negativity indirectlyi. Exposure -> transportation (mediating variable) -> intergroup anxiety -> lower trans negativity8. What were the main points from Ethnic Notions?a. Rewatch....or look up summary9. What were the main points from Latinos Beyond Reel?a. Latinos, despite their population in the U.S., are underrepresented on & behind the camerab. Never shown as heroes or having their own heroesc. White actors in brownface playing them & white writers scripting and casting themi. Not getting to tell their own stories or write themselves in as protagonists and main charactersii. When Latinos do get parts, they are told to act ‘more Latino’/stereotypical1. In a position where they must play parts that break their hearts—must make exceptions to morality to get parts/workiii. Hollywood creates and reinforces the criminal/thief/animal/drunk stereotype to justify and rewritehistory/settling of the West (strip the dignity out of fighting for the rights of Mexico)10. According to data from USC, across popular film, what is the prevalence of White vs. racial minority characters?a. 1300 films in 2019: 65.7% characters were whitei. Latinos were the most underrepresented (4.9%)11. What is Clark’s Stage Model?a. 1. Invisibility/non-representation i. Symbolic annihilationb. 2. Ridicule c. 3. regulationi. Roles upholding social orderd. 4. respecti. Diverse, nuanced12. Historically, how have Blacks/African Americans been shown in the media?a. Minstrel shows popular in early 19th centuryb. White actors in blackface with exaggerated characteristicsc. Before slavery ended = happy to be enslaved (Happy Sambo, Mammy)13. How did African American media images change after slavery was abolished?a. After = new portrayals were more negativei. Buffoons (zip coons)ii. Savage brutes14. What are some common media tropes in relation to African Americans?a. Ridiculous/exaggerated charactersb. Dumb & uneducatedc. Poord. Lazye. Aggressive (verbal & physical, men & women)f. Criminals/thugsg. Low-status workers/servantsh. Newer/since the 90’si. Intelligent, likeable, moral, athleticii. Sexualization and professional status remain inconsistent over years15. What stereotypical stock characters did we discuss in relation to Black/African American media depictions?a. Slave/servant b. Magical Negroi. Special insight, mythical powersc. Black bffi. Token, sassy if femaled. Thug/criminali. More malese. Dumb athlete i. Jerry McGuiref. Mammyg. Sapphire i. Angry black woman/overly assertiveii. Empire (Cookie)h. Jezebeli. Halle Berry in the Flintstonesi. Strong black womani. Superwoman in the face of


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