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UMass Boston COMM 480 - Midterm Study Guide

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COMM 480:Midterm Study Guide The exam is worth 125 points and may incorporate a mixture of multiple choice, true/false, and short answer questions. There will be more multiple-choice questions than anything else. WEEKS 1 to 4 1. What are social identities and how are they different from personal identities?a. Social identity: aspects of self-image/concept that derive from social categories to which they perceive themselves as belonging to (can be positive or negative)i. Being one with the groupii. Being like others in the groupiii. Seeing things from group perspectiveiv. Social categorization + group evaluation + value of group membership for self-concept1. Positive SI= positive self-esteem2. Negative= competition, social mobility behaviorsv. Processes= categorization & comparisonb. Personal identity: personality, physical traits, attitudes, preferences independent of groups2. What is the basic premise of social identity theory?a. Individuals categorize themselves as belonging to various groups and evaluate in/out groups, comparing value to determine worth/social statusi. 7 underlying psychological principles to SIT (chronologicalwith feedback loops):1. People categorize themselves as belonging to certain social groups2. Social group is more/less salient in certain contextsa. Further processes only happen is psychological salience exists3. Through social comparison, people evaluate salient in-group relative to relevant out-groups4. Positive distinctiveness describes the result of social comparisona. If in-group is more favorable than out-groupi. In-group favoritism & out-group derogation5. Social id = self-categorization and its evaluation which influences...6. Individual's self-esteem7. Consequences = individual mobility, social creativity, social competition, stereotypingb. Groups people belong to have an important sense of pride and self-esteemi. Membership gives people a sense of belongingii. Exist only in relation to contrasting categories (in & out)iii. Not all social identities are always salientiv. People uniformly make positive evaluations of their own in-group members (in-group bias & positive distinctiveness)3. What are in-groups and out-groups?a. 4. What is in-group bias?a. Making positive evaluations of in-group members; part of positive distinctivenessi. When someone in the group messes up, we blame the person rather than the group5. What is a marginalized identity?a. Group memberships/identities that are different from the valued, mainstream identities in societyi. Stigmatized – labeled, stereotyped, separated, status loss, &discrimination occur in a power situation that allows them6. How are concealed and conspicuous identities different?a. Concealed: hiddenb. Conspicuous: cannot hide7. What is a stereotype?a. Overgeneralized beliefs about the characteristics, attributes, & behavior of social groups (negative or positive); “pictures in our heads” - Lippmani. Can be harmful because they impact beliefs, attitudes, behaviors of in and out group membersii. Byproduct of social categorization8. What are some functions of a stereotype?a. Allows us to quickly process & interpret information/snap-judgementsb. Navigate social normsc. To know more than what we have experienced 1st handd. boost self-esteem through downward social comparison of an out-group9. What are some problems with stereotyping?a. May contain “kernels of truth” but are still overgeneralizationsi. Lead us to having inaccurate attributions/assumptionsii. Misguided attitudes and beliefsiii. Prejudice and discriminationiv.


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