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UMass Boston COMM 480 - Midterm Study Guide Part 4

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35. What is the process for conducting a content analysis about media stereotyping, as laid out in your textbook and discussed in class?a. Step 1: determine research question/problem for investigationb. Step 2: consider how it can be operationalized & measured i. 2 ways to code content: manifest & latentc. Step 3: develop a codebook/guidei. Clear definitions to minimize discrepanciesd. Step 4: train the coderse. Step 5: evaluate the numerical content for intercoder reliabilityi. Alpha test, pi test, kappa...f. Step 6: choose a unit of analysis i. Ex: scene36. What is manifest content and how is it different from latent content?a. Manifest content: what you seei. easily observedii. most understand with the same shared normative definition1. ex: how many m/f?b. Latent content: what it means/implied meaning under the surface c. i. requires judgment to decipher1. Consumers have different understandingsa. Ex: where characters are portrayed through family? Age? Etc.37. What is an outcome-based study? What are the diverse types of outcomes scholars typically explore in these studies? a. Outcome-based studies: research that provides evidence of the influence of exposure to media stereotypical content on users -- Surveys and experimentsi. Outcome types1. Cognitive – attitudes, beliefs, judgements2. Affective – emotional responses, feelings3. Behavioral – intention too (willingness to engage)4. Also look at the difference between short and long-term effects38. What are mediation and moderation?a. Mediating: Indirect effecti. Independent (ex: media use) variable’s influence on mediating variables indirectly impacts other variables, such as outcome1. Ex: negation/active cognitive disbelief in the stereotypeb. Moderating: conditional effecti. 3rd variable moderates effect of media use on stereotyping1. Effect becomes stronger/weaker/changes direction depending on individual or situational variables (ex: education)39. What are some common issues/limitations of study media stereotypes in survey or experimental research?a. Studies overuse student samplesi. Are not always generalizableb. Homogenous samplesi. Majority onlyc. Self-reporting biasi. Social desirabilityd. Measurement error in self-reporting media usage40. What is an implicit measure of bias?a. Bypasses social desirability confoundi. Ex: IAT1. Criticism = fails to be used consistently in predicting behaviors41. What is a psychophysiological measure?a. Physical signs that indicate changes in mental/emotional statei. Heart rate, sweating, etc.42. What is the Bechdel Test?a. Asks 3 questions to assess whether a film has gender biasi. Does the film feature >2 women?1. Who talk to each other?a. About something other than a man?43. According to data from the USC Inclusion Initiative, how many speaking characters in films are male and how many are female? What about leads and co-leads?a. From 1990-2006i. 73% speaking characters in top 400 movies were maleb. In 2019i. 43% of top 1300 movies had female lead or co-lead44. What do we know about speaking roles in film and gender?a. Of 4451 characters in top 100 movies of 2019i. 66% were male (1.9:1 m:f)ii. 98.6% were not LGBT1. 78 movies had no LGBT character at all2. 94 had no female LGBT characters at alliii. Women are only 25.4% characters over 40 years old45. How does genre impact the likelihood of female speaking characters being present in a film?a. Female speaking roles in 2019i. Action/adventure: 27.9%ii. Animation: 33.3%iii. Comedy: 38.7%46. According to lecture and your textbook, what are some key facts that we know about how women are depicted in television and film?a. Women are more likely than men toi. Be shown in traditional caregiver/partner roleii. Be younger, thinner, attractiveiii. Be scantily cladiv. Be shown without a determinable jobv. Shown as sexually passivevi. Shown as hostile/nagging/with a negative attitude47. What are the stereotypical female stock characters discussed in class?a. Damsel in distressi. Needs rescue from a man; young and beautiful1. Cinderella, Fionab. Housewifec. Femme fatalei. Uses sex/looks to ‘get’ a man1. Fatal attraction (I'm pregnant)d. Fashionistai. Shopping, grooming, superficial1. Confessions from a shopaholice. The dumb blondei. Put in contrast to smarter brunette1. Legally blondef. The mean girli. Cruel, gossipy, socially aggressiveg. The virgin & the sluti. Slut= sexual or scandalous at all1. Grease (Sandra D song)h. The cat ladyi. Older, eccentric1. Simpsonsi. The shrewi. Guy has to tame unruly woman – needs a man to keep her in linej. The love-obsessed/men-crazy womani. Bride Wars (marry me already)48. According to lecture and your textbook, what are some key facts that we know about how men are depicted in television and film?a. Males are more often shown:i. Working/at work1. In positions of occupational leadership/powerii. Disruptively interruptingiii. Verbally/physically aggressive1. Angry/violentiv. As sex-crazed1. Harassersv. Lacking emotional intelligence/inept/buffoon1. Joke when the man must take care of the kids49. What are the stereotypical male stock characters discussed in class?a. Joker/jesteri. Adam Sandler- happy Gilmoreb. The jock i. Dumb, popular, not well-rounded, gets girlsc. The strong silent type i. Action movies & westernsd. The big shot i. Defined by status and wealth1. Wolf on wall street, Pretty Womane. Action hero i. Aggressive, angry; strong but not silentf. The buffooni. Inept, hopeless, can't get anything right1. How I met your motherg. Prince charming i. Rescues the girl, swoops in and saves the day1. Pretty Woman, Spidermanh. The bad boyi. In juxtaposition to nerd, mysterious, girls think they can tame him1. Breakfast clubi. The boy-next-doori. Friend zoned, nerdier, quieter50. What is the proportion of men to women in YouTube advertisements? In which genres


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