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BIOL 320 SI Session 8/31Define the three different patterns of hormone releases:“Test: this hormone will produce this action”- Chronic secretiono Constant, the concentration of this hormone stays relatively the same or constant o Need it to remain in homeostasiso Thyroid hormone (TSH)- Acute secretiono flight or fight, fast releaseo Anytime in the body where the body needs that hormone right that instanto Epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin- Cyclic secretion or episodico Fluctuate concentration based on intervalo Estrogen, menstrual cycleDefine the three different mechanisms of hormonal release:- Humoralo Hormone gets released in response to change in blood concentrations (insulin, PTH)- Neuralo Nervous system stimulates release of hormone (fight or flight)- Hormonalo Hormone gets released in response to another oneo Hypothalamus has its own hormones and it will go to the pituitary which will produce its own hormoneso TRH to TSHDefine the three different ways hormones can interact with one another:- Synergistic: hormones work together to produce a greater effect; hormone A and hormone B produce a greater effect than if they worked individually; mainly occurs when two hormones are working together to reach an effect that normally one hormone could not do alone- Permissive: first hormone allows action of second hormone; hormone A causes full effect of hormone B- Antagonistic: one hormone causes opposite effect of another; hormone A causes the opposite effect of hormone B (insulin and glucagon)Cyclic AMP cycle—second messenger system “Know which hormone uses this and what protein kinase can accomplish” (slide 22)1. a hormone (first messenger) binds receptor 2. receptor activates G protein 3. G protein activates adenylate cyclase4. adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP (2nd messenger)5. cAMP activates protein kinases- What does protein kinase do?o Starts cycle where cells will open their membrane and allow things to come in- DAG and cAMP both activate protein kinase!PIP Calcium cycle1. Ligand binds to membrane 2. Activates G protein 3. G protein activates phospholipase C enzyme (Hormones functioning through activation of phospholipase C include oxytocin, ATH, and epi)4. Phospholipase splits membrane phospholipid PIP2 into two 2nd messengers: diacylglycerol (DAG) and IP35. DAG activates protein kinase and IP3 triggers release of calcium6. This calcium alters enzymes or channels or binds to the regulatory protein calmodulinTIPS- Study at least two weeks early- Varsity tutor—varsity tutors ___ system: this is a good tool to help memorize- She will test your ability to understand what she is talking about so record her and understand her way of explaining it - Ninja nerd on YouTube has great videos about varying lab/lecture topics- “Ninja nerd special senses”- Drawings help to memorize blood vessels and branching- Be able to lecture the material like she does from the power point - Zoom sessions will be lab

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TAMU BIOL 320 - SI Session

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