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FSU AMH 3444 - Key Terms

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American West Key TermsAMH 3444/02 - 5935/04Miners and Railroads - Pp. 161-176, 200-206Cattlemen and Farmers - PP. 179-200Indian Wars - Pp 213-225Myths of the Old West - Pp. 273-282People's Party - Pp. 234-237; also 198-199 for the Grange and Farmers' AllianceTranscontinental Railroad•Butterfield Overland Stagecoach LineoBen Holladay: started the stagecoach lineThe Butterfield Overland Express carried the first overland transcontinental mail by stagecoach through Arkansas as it went from the Mississippi River to California. Though only running from 1858 through 1861, it was the longest stagecoach line in world history at approximately 2,812 miles and was a major factor in the settlement and development of Arkansas and the American West before the Civil War•Pony Express: mail was sent on horseback through a series of stations that took about 10 days to go from coast to coast.•Pacific Railroad Act (1862)1860 Republican convention: pledged to put in a trans continental railroad between East and WestOne railroad started on the west side of U.S. and the other in the East (Omaha)oUnion Pacific (omaha)oCentral Pacific (california)Transcontinental Railroad: Use private industry to build RR, built by 2 companies (Central Pacific RR in Sacramento) and (Union Pacific RR in Omaha)U.S. Gov will loan money to RR per mile of track:8,000 flat land 16,000 rolling land 32,000 for mountain landU.S. also gives land to RR that they can sell without having to pay back govCentral Pacific Leadership was much better than that of the Union Pacific RR.Colus Huntington: in charge of labor (hires Chinese immigrants)Rail Roads rushed to lay more track than each other in order to get more money•Promontory Point:1869: Meeting point of Union and Central RRs, was used so that the two rail road companies would stop trying to go around each other to make more money for laying more tracks.Bleeding Kansas and The Civil War in the West•Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854: Kansas and Nebraska to become territories and slavery will be voted on in each area.•Bleeding Kansas: Slavery vs Non Slavery in Kansas (should it join union or not)!!Proslavery forces said every settler had the right to bring his own property, ! ! including slaves, into the territory. Antislavery "free soil" forces said the ! ! rich slaveowners would buy up all the good farmland and work them with ! ! black slaves, leaving little or no opportunity for non-slaveowners. ! Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Society: transportation company to send anti-slavery citizens to kansas so that the territory would join the union as a free state.oDavid Atchison: wealthy slave owner in kansas advocated pro slavery.oLawrence Kansas(pro-union): City founded by the Emigrant Aid society •John Brown: (abolitionist) led the raid against pro-slavery members who had captured the city of lawrence kansas.oPottawatomie Creek: place where John Brown and his gang killed five settlers•The Crime Against Kansas Speech: Sumner argued that Kansas should immediately be a free state and that the Kansas Nebraska act shouldn't be aloud. Slavery was evil.oCharles Sumner: leader of anti-slavery forces in MassachusettsoPreston Brooks: Beat Sumner up with his cane because he felt he had insulted his honor•Lecompton Constitution: The Lecompton Constitution, the second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery (Article VII), excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on the Lecompton Constitution: December 21, 1857, January 4, 1858, and August 2, 1858. In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected the Lecompton Constitution.•Missouri 1861 Missouri 1861North (st. Louis)=pro union, german immigrants against slaverySouth=pro southoNathaniel Lyon: Commander of union forces in MissourioClaiborne F. Jackson: said he was against succeeding from union to get elected gov of missouri but actually wanted to join confederacyoJohn Fremont: Given command of Unions Western front by Lincoln as a favor. After Frémont's emancipation edict that freed slaves in his district, he was relieved of his command by President Lincoln for insubordination.•Wilson’s Creek, August 1861: Lyon (union commander) attacks Sterling, Lyon is defeated and he is killed. Army retreats all the way to St. Louis•Five Civilized Tribes: dressed like whites, confederates will give them independence if they win the war, send 3,000 troops to Earl Van Dorn’s army•Pea Ridge, March 1862: N. Arkansas: 2 day fight, Union victory. With Van Dorn’s defeat all organized confederate armies are out of Missouri. Opens up Arkansas to Union invasion.•Bushwhackers and Jayhawkers oJames B. Lane: 1,500 Kansas leads to W. Missouri (oseola) burns town and shot 9 missouriansoWilliam C. Quantrill: : Missourian leader: 24 year old school teacher when war starts. Raided Union supplies: Stops a train in Central Missouri, 22 union soldiers going home on leave, made them get off train, strip, and were shot.Union sends retaliation force that was ambushed and killed.Confederate Jesse James shot commanding officer in head.Jesse and Frank James: Thrill from running away from the law even after the war•Glorietta Pass, March 1862: Confederates won but Union Calvary burned their supply wagons (lost tents and food). Had to retreat out of New MexicoThe Farmer’s Frontier•Homestead Act (1862):The Homestead Act, enacted during the Civil War in 1862, provided that any adult citizen, or intended citizen, who had never borne arms against the U.S. government could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land. Claimants were required to “improve” the plot by building a dwelling and cultivating the land. After 5 years on the land, the original filer was entitled to the property, free and clear, except for a small registration fee. Title could also be acquired after only a 6-month residency and trivial improvements, provided the claimant paid the government $1.25 per acre. After the Civil War, Union soldiers could deduct the time they had served from the residency requirements.oHorace Greeley: founded New York Tribune (newspaper) supported republicans and whigs•Log Cabin Bill (1841): President Tyler signed the Log Cabin Bill which gave settlers the right to claim land before it was for sale and then buy it later for $1.25 an acre. This helped to get the west settled and expand


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