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AMH 3444American West Notes from first list of termsWhere: open to interpretation Fredrick Jackson Turner: first person to attempt defining American West1893 Chicago ExpoSignificance of the Frontier in American History! Americans became self reliant/more individualistic! Class lines failed to develop in West because of this, and the pioneers fought for ! rights of the common man.! The frontier melded immigrants into Americans! West=Safety valveCriticisms of Turner! Failed to mention the impact of others on the West! West founded by groups with sense of community! Immigrants retained their identity! “safety valve” not necessaryWhat then is the American West! A fluid place- always changing! “safety valve”! Borderlands! Self-reliance! Different political ideology! ! -common man vs. Industry (railroad)! Popular Culture and the ImaginationGeography of WestGreat Plains= less rain from the mountain shadow effectWindmills+irrigation: enables water pumping from beneath the earthMust use Trains to transports goods. (rivers to shallow)-adaptions necessary for any people living on the great plainsThe Great Basin and Southwest: (New Mexico, Arizona, Utah) has own unique problems but rich in minerals (silver,gold,tin)Northern California, Oregon, Washington: Get all of the rain 140 inches a yearwoodlands, game, earliest fur trading industry in United States early 1800ssoil is very fertile for cropsSouthern California: Mediterranean climate*Rainfall determines the ares that need innovations to live inSpain’s New World EmpireAgriculture begins 2000 BCE corn in Central America200AD in North AmericaAnasazi: First tribe to use agriculture in north new mexico, a drought forces them to move southThey become:Pueblo and build cities for defenseSioux (lakota) Indians: (Northern Great Plains)The introduction of the horse to these indians makes them fierce warriors.Social hierarchy is based on how many horses you haveCounting coup: Indians thought it was cool to touch an opponent before you kill themLess cohesion in battle and had no set planComanche: Horse for war (Oklahoma through Texas)Feared for their aggression from 1850-1860Lecture 4: Spain’s New World EmpireCabeza de Vaca: survivor that was kept alive by Indian tribe in Texas, escapes to Mexico.Local Indians claim seven cities of gold north of TexasThis is backed by a Spanish legend so they believe themFrancisco Coronado’s Expedition, 1541-1543 (attempt to find the 7 Cibola cities of gold)230 calvary60 foot soldiersFails to find cities but learns a lot about south west from thisThe Franciscans and the Royal Orders of 1573: No more ill advised conquests-Spain is at war with French (territory) and English (religious)wars cost moneyChurch (as missionaries) will now secure the borders by pacifying the Indians and becoming allies with them incase we are attackedThe Franciscans: (order of the lesser brothers); “the mobile striking force of the catholic church” ! -1595 move into New MexicoKing of Spain is in debt so breaks his own Royal Orders of 1573 by sending a colony into New Mexico in order to support the local Priests (salary)Juan De Onate: wealthy; king asks him to lead the new mexico expeditionleads 500 colonistshe fails, King is pissedremoved as governor of New Mexico ! Apache: warlike and feared by Spanish, in new mexico raid villages+farmsfamine and disease causes natives to distrust Spanish Christianity-return to old practices!! Fransicians go crazy and use spanish army to crack downPope leads Pueblo Revolt of 1680! 400 spanish settlers killed along with 33 priest, survivors fled! Apachee start to raid pueblo! Pueblo decide spanish were better1693 Spanish return and reestablish New Mexico and both sides make concessions-rebuild churches give up native religion-Spanish agree to pay for labor and redouble efforts to protect pueblo indiansCalifornia and Texas established to protect North New Mexico and silver minesSieur La Salle: travels down the Mississippi, returns to france to form expedition. Hurricane ship wrecks his ships in Texas. Spanish don’t know where La Salle is going (pissed off)soldiers mutiny and return to CanadaLecture Spanish TexasFrancisco Hidalgo: wants to re-establish missions in Mexico, Spain says no. Asks French, their soldiers enter Texas.Los Adaes, Spanish capital of Texas! -close to new orleans so that spanish soldiers can watch themFrench try to flank Spanish in Texas! Fighting in Kansas, Spanish humiliatedSpanish and the Comanches: Apachee ask spanish to come north to give them christianityTrick Spanish into entering Comanche territoryRussians and California: valuable furs in the areaVitus Bering: set up the fur tradeSpanish afraid that English will use Russian knowledge of American north west to colonize the area and possibly invade mexicoNotes from Terms sheet 2 United States in 1783January 22, 2009“Tejas” what native americans called texasSpanish Missions in Texas – Why were they not successful?The Spanish civil authorities saw the missions and presidios as financial drains and were often the early proponents of shutting down the mission activities. Almost without exception, the decision to secularize was opposed by the friars. They felt the Indians were not sufficiently educated and would be taken advantage of by the authorities and the Spanish settlers. Thus, not until 1830 were the last missions in Texas secularized.San Saba Massacre, 1758: Comanche destroy this spanish mission and kill everyone because they feel like it is intruding on their territoryVitus Bering: Russian explorer in Alaska+Northern CallyJuan Bautista de AnzaJuan Bautista de Anza Bezerra Nieto (July 6/7, 1736[1] – December 19, 1788) was a New-Spanish explorer and Governor of New Mexico for the Spanish Empire.-claims territory east of mississippi and west of Atlantic oceanIriquoi were the first tribe to suffer from this land grab, placed on reservationsArticles of Confederation: successful with their land policyMaryland and Delaware can’t expand westward so demand other states can’t eitherStates can’t gain more territory past the mississippi, instead as population in these areas rises, new states will formLand Ordinance of 1785: determines how land will be surveyed and sold, very orderly in square unitsNW ordinance of 1787: (Ohio area) 3-5 states and slavery could never exist here.Whiskey rebellion: If you give anything to ppl out west they are untrustworthy with itDaniel Boone and Kentucky:! born 1734 in penn! !

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FSU AMH 3444 - American West Notes

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