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FSU PET 3323C - TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE

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TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 1 What is intracellular fluid a Fluid found within cells 2 What are the two types of extra cellular fluid and describe each a Plasma fluid portion of blood b Interstitial fluid fluid in spaces between tissue cells 3 How much percent of weight does all the water in the body contribute 4 How much percent consist of intracellular fluid and how much extra cellular fluid a 60 a Intracellular 40 b Extra cellular 20 5 Of the two types of extra cellular fluid how much percent does interstitial fluid contribute and how much percent does plasma contribute a Interstitial fluid is 80 of ECF b Plasma is 20 of ECF 6 Solid contributes more to body weight in male or females a Females 45 while in males 40 7 What is a non electrolyte and give two examples a Does not dissociate in solution b Glucose and lipids a Dissociate into ions in solution 8 What are electrolytes 9 What do ions conduct a Electricity 10 What does increased osmolarity indicate a Increases solutes 11 What are some examples of electrolytes a Inorganic salts and some proteins 12 What is the primary extra cellular cation 13 What is the primary anion of extra cellular fluid 14 What is the primary cation of intracellular fluid 15 What is the primary anion of intracellular fluid 17 About how many ml of sodium is found in IFC 18 Where is calcium Ca2 found more in ECF or ICF 19 Where is magnesium anion found more in ECF or ICF 20 Where is chloride found more in ECF or ICF a Na a Cl a K a HPO4 a True a 10 ml a ECF a ICF a ECF 16 True or false injection of K can kill patient because it is increasing ECF K concentration too fast 21 Where is bicarbonate anion more prevalent in ECF or ICF 22 Where is phosphate more prevalent in ECF or ICF 23 What is osmolarity a Measure of solutes in a solution 24 How much does osmolarity increase when NaCl enters a solution 25 What does an increase in plasma osmolarity trigger a ECF a ICF a 2 a Thirst 26 What hormone is released in response to increased plasma osmolarity a Antidiuretic hormone 27 What does antidiuretic hormone ADH do a Causes reabsorbtion of water into plasma b Excretion of more concentrated urine 28 What does a decrease in plama osmolarity do a Inhibits thirst inhibits ADH and causes large outputs of urine 29 Where do we get our daily water from most to least a Ingested liquids ingested foods metabolic water 30 Where is water lost from most to least a Kidneys skin lungs GI tract 31 About how much water is taken in and excreted daily a 2500 ml 32 What is an isotonic cell environment a Solute concentration inside cells is same as outside cells 33 What is hypotonic cell environment a Low solutes in ECF High solutes in cell water goes in cell and enlarges 34 What is hypertonic cell environment a High solutes in ECF Low solutes in cell water leaves cell and shrivels 35 What is a nephron a Structural and functional units of kidneys that carry out processes to form urine 36 About how many nephrons do we have a 1 million 37 What is the renal corpuscle and what is the function a Glomerular capsule and Glomerulus b Capillaries that take filtrate from the plasma and use this to form urine 38 In collecting duct what is water permeability regulated by a ADH 39 What must you have to make concentrated urine a Urea and ADH 40 Where is ADH produced a Posterior pituitary 41 What signals the posterior pituitary a Hypothalamus 42 When ADH causes water reabsorbtion into plasma what effect does this have on blood pressure a Increase in blood pressure due to vasoconstriction 43 What does ADH inhibit 44 How does dehydration occur and water deprivation 45 What is hyptonic hyperdehydration a Sweat gland activity to maintain ECF volume and keep a normal blood pressure a Negative fluid balance and hemorrhage due to burn vomiting diarrhea sweating a Cellular overhydration 46 What causes this 47 What is edema a Renal insufficiency huge intake of water hyponatremia a Atypical accumulation of fluid in ICF b Increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure and permeability 48 What is hypoproteinemia a Decreased fluid return 49 What is the most abundant cation in ECF a Sodium 50 What regulation of salt linked to a Blood pressure and blood volume 51 What is salt reabsorbtion influenced by 52 What does RAA do a Raise blood pressure and Na levels 53 What does ANP do a Lowers blood pressure 54 What will an increase in blood pressure cause a Renin Antgiotensin Aldosterone System RAA and ANP a ANP to be released and vasodilation to reduce blood pressure 55 Where is filtrate altered by reabsorbtion and secretion a Renal tubule 56 What are 3 processes of nephron a Flitration of blood into nephron b Tubular reabsorbtion from tubular fluid into blood c Tubular secretion from blood into tubular fluid The Immune System 1 What is the non specific portion of the immune system a Innate defense system 2 What priority is the innate defense system and how long do they usually take to act a 1st and 2nd line of defense respond within minutes 3 What is the 1st line of defense of the innate defense system a Skin mucosa 4 What is the 2nd line of defense of the innate defense system and when does it act a Inflammation proteins phagocytes to inhibit invaders only acts when 1st line has been penetrated 5 What is the specific defense system known as a Adaptive defense system 6 What line of defense is this system a 3rd line of defense takes more time to respond 7 What does the adaptive defense system do a Attacks foreign substances infection a True 8 True or False the innate and adaptive systems are intertwined and work together to prevent 9 Give an example of how the adaptive and innate systems work together a Proteins released during the innate response alerts cells of the adaptive system about presence of a foreign substance i Innate system sets up adaptive system to be effective 10 What protein in the skin provides a tough barrier as the first line of defense a Keratin keratinization is hardening of the skin 11 What do mucous membranes do a Provide lining for all body cavities open to exterior i Serve as physical barriers ii Secrete protective proteins 12 What is skin a Keratinized epithelial membrane 13 What is skin usually resistant to a Weak acid and bases and some toxins 14 What is the acidity of skin secretions and what do they do a Ph of 3 5 and inhibit bacterial growth 15 What does the stomach release to kill microorganisms a HCl and protein digesting enzymes 16 What do saliva and lacrimal


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