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Final Study Guide- 4 steps to a nonviolent campaign o Collection of facts o Negotiationo Self-purificationo Direct action- Redlining o If an area is determined to be high-risk, you can’t get insurance or a loan. This is why black areas are called food deserts because they don’t have supermarkets since they won’t be granted loans - Stereotypeso Mammy Caregiver, motherly, fat, uneducated, asexual, eldero Jezebel Hypersexual, desire for white men, promiscuous o Sapphire Angry, loud, sassy, mean o Sambo/Zipcoon Fool, child-like, coward, silly, lazy depiction o Buck/Brute Muscular, aggressive, all about the body, animalistic - War on Drugso Clinton showed his dislike for the lower class by taking away housing and food stamps for anyone convicted of a drug felono Black youth are incarcerated at a rate 25 times more than that of white youtho Blacks comprise 75% of drug arrests - Carl B. Stokeso First black mayor of a major city (Cleveland, Ohio)- Shirley Chisholmo First black woman to run for a presidential nomination with a major political party - Douglas Wildero First black governor (in Virginia)- HIV/AIDSo Majority of new diagnosis are among blackso 1 of 3 leading causes for deaths among black women between 35-44- Institutional racism vs. Individual racismo Institutional racism Racism that isn’t obvious Usually seen through laws that discriminate against a certain race, or favors another race o Individual racism  Racism against the individual  Blatantly towards someone- Affirmative actiono Regents of University of California vs. Bakke (case) Determined that racial quotas are illegal - Homophobiao A terror surrounding feelings of love for the same sex, and thereby a hatred of those feelings in others- Heterosexismo The belief in the superiority in one form of loving above all others; and thereby, the right to dominance - Lexicono Minority- the elite white maleo Socialism- an economic system in which the means of production are controlled by workers, communities, and countries o Capitalism- an economic system in which the means of production are controlled by individuals and corporationso Media- the technologies by which ideas and concepts are disseminated o Democracy- a system of governance in which there exists an electoral system of majority rule o Politics- that which determines and maintain powero Race- a social construction of different races o Racism- the predication of decisions and policies on considerations of racefor the purpose of subordinating a racial groupo White supremacy- the political ideology that perpetuates, and maintains the social, political, and historical dominance of whites o Panafricanism- the recognition of all African descendants as one family, separated by racist, imperialist, and colonialist powers, and imposed geographic borders - Plessey v. Fergusono Separate but equal o Racial segregation in public areas - Browder v. Galeo Ended segregation on public transportationo Ruled that segregation on Alabama’s buses was unconstitutional - Garveyo Started the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association)o Founded the black star line cruise o Newspaper- The Negro World - DuBoiso Leader of the Niagra Movement o Believes that Washington wanted blacks to give up three things Civil rights Political power Higher education  In exchange for an industrial education and the acquisition of wealth which protects property rights- This resulted because of a disagreement with Washington- Washingtono Wealthiest black man in Americao Started Tuskeegee Institute to provide an industrial education to blacks- Charles Hamilton Houstono Killed Jim Crow / attacked Jim Crow through the courts o Trained lawyers and attorneys through the NAACP- Nihilismo Hopelessness after oppression- Conservative behaviorism o Stresses hard work and frugalityo Leads to black capitalism Stop waiting for the government to help you - Liberal structuralismo Government started and benefited from free African labor in the USAo It’s the governments responsibility to rectify discriminatory issues throughgovernment reforms - Black powero Phrase coined by Charmichael - Revolutionary nationalism vs. Cultural nationalismo Revolutionary nationalism Socialism  Power to the peopleo Cultural nationalism Black people are living in a context not meant for them, and they will not be at their true potential until they adopt African ideals - Incarceration o A lot of tax money is spent on incarceration o More African Americans incarcerated today than were enslaved in 1880o Drug treatment is cheaper o More blacks are accused of using drugs and are incarcerated for it as opposed to whites, even though they both use them the same amount - Possessive investment in whiteness o Whiteness appears to be nothingo A benign category against which difference is constructed - AFDCo Aid to Families with Dependent Children- TANFo Temporary Assistance for Needy Families o Welfare- Equianoo Wrote about slave trade and experiences o African prince that was mistaken for a slaveo Released by captivators and returned to England on a slave shipo Became literate in Englando Had slaves of his own when he returned to Africa - Slave tradeo Triangle trade Left Europe Went to Africa to get human cargo Went to Caribbean to trade humans for goods o Africans were enslaved instead of Europeans because Europeans were promised land after enslavemento Native Americans also died from diseases brought by Europeans, and theyknew the land so it was easier to escape o Williams said slavery was purely for economic reasonso Jordan said blackness meant something about character - Civil rights act o Federal government was given the power to persecute anyone who discriminated on the base of race, religion, sex, or national origino Desegregated public places o Demanded equal opportunity in the workplace- Voting Rights Acto Prohibited discrimination for votingo Outlawed literacy tests - Letter from Birmingham jailo Letter from MLK defending nonviolent protests - Ella Baker o Principle organizer of Montgomery improvement association, LCSC, SNCCo Most important person in civil rights movement o SNCC- Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee - 13th Amendmento Abolished slavery - 14th Amendmento Citizenship - 15th Amendment o Voting rights couldn’t be denied based on

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UMD AASP 100 - Final Study Guide

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