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Unit 4 BIOL 240 Heart Function pump propel blood through body Double circuit system o 2 pumps left side right side o Systemic circuit blood goes to most of tissues of body o Pulmonary circuit blood goes to lungs Chambers o 2 atria small superior o Ventricles inferior large External Heart Anatomy 21 5 Atria R L Ventricle R L Apex Interventricle sulcus anterior posterior Vena Cava inferior superior Pulmonary trunk Aorta Pulmonary veins Coronary sinus Pericardium parietal visceral Internal Heart Anatomy 21 7 21 9 Interventricular septum Valves o Atrioventricular AV o Semilunars Right tricuspid Left bicuspid mitral Right pulmonary valve Left aortic valve o Valve function keep blood flowing one way pressure operated o Valve order 21 11 AV valves open atria contracting semilunars closed all closed Ventricles contract closes AVs opens semilunars Heart relaxes all valves close o Papillary muscles o Chordae tendineae threads valve to heart wall Layers of Heart Wall 21 3 o Visceral pericardium epicardium outer layer o Myocardium cardiac muscle tissue o Endocardium inner layer connective tissue epithelial layer Skeleton of Heart support valves Control System conducting system 21 12 modified muscle cells o SA node sinoatrial natural pacemaker Causes both atria to contract o AV node atrioventricular o AV bundle bundle of his o Purkinje Fibers spread out over ventricles o Tunica externa adventitia outer tough connective tissue o Tunica media media middle elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle o Tunica intima interna thin layer of connective tissue and epithelial lining o Capillaries single layer intima Blood Vessels Layers of wall 22 1 Path of Blood through Body 22 2 Heart o Arteries Aorta Elastic large arteries media lots of elastic tissue Muscular medium and small arteries media mostly smooth muscle Arterioles smallest arteries o Veins thin walls less muscle less elastic tissue pressure low partially collapsed Venules Small medium veins Large veins Superior inferior vena cava o Heart pulmonary pressure lower o Pulmonary arteries deoxygenated o Lungs capillaries o Pulmonary veins oxygenated o Heart pulmonary pressure lower Capillaries 22 4 smallest vessels Arteries o Higher pressure o Thicker walls o Circular in cross section Veins o Low pressure o Thin walls o Function where exchange occurs o Size so small that red blood cells barely fit through o Oval in cross section o Large veins have valves Respiratory System 24 1 24 4 Function gas exchange getting oxygen in and carbon dioxide out breathe Parts following air path o Nares nostrils external o Nasal cavity o Internal nares o Nasopharynx pharynx o Oropharynx pharynx o Laryngyopharynx o Larynx o Trachea o Bronchi bronchus pair split from bronchus o Lungs Nasal Region 24 4 o Nose o Nasal septum o Turbinates conchae o Olfactory membrane o Openings for Auditory tube Sinuses Lacrimal sac o Paranasal Air Sinuses Maxillary Frontal ethmoid sphenoid Temporal mastoid air cells o Inward from nasal cavity Larynx 24 7 Internal nares nasopharynx oropharynx laryngopharynx larynx o Vocal cords Holding breath closing glottis Stretching and relaxing change pitch higher stretch lower relax Trachea 24 9 Bronchi singular bronchus o Primary 1st branch off trachea o Secondary 2nd branch off trachea 2 left 3 on right o Tertiary 24 13 Bronchioles alveoli gas exchange occurs capillaries Lung Structure 24 12 24 10 21 2 o Apex o Base o Medial mediastinal costal surface o Parietal outer visceral inner pleura o Lobes fissures Right Left fissures horizontal oblique lobes superior middle inferior Fissure oblique Lobes superior and inferior Breathing Mechanism o Quiet breathing at rest Diaphragm inflates lungs Inspiration inhaling when diaphragm contracts active Expiration exhale diaphragm relaxes passive Lunch contracts due to elasticity o Forceful Diaphragm and ribs Raise and lower ribs Inspiration diaphragm external intercostals active Expiration internal intercostals active Swallowing 25 8 Rapid pharyngeal phase Slow esophageal phase Esophagus 25 1 transport only Stomach 25 10 25 11 Cardiac orifice opening from esophagus Fundus Body Pyloric region Pyloric orifice and sphincter Greater and lesser curvature Greater and lesser omentum Functions o Storage allows to eat full meals o Mixing and liquefying food material thick walls smooth muscle o Chemical breakdown of proteins o Absorption food molecules moved into blood Small Intestine 25 14 smaller diameter Duodenum Jejunum 8 ileum 12 lining 25 15 o villi Large Intestine Colon 25 1 ileocecal calve cecum pouch vermiform appendix immune system ascending colon transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon haustra haustrum pouches formed in large intestine rectum anus Function absorb water Digestive glands 25 20 25 22 o Gall bladder o Common bile duct Pancreas o Pancreatic duct Gastic portal veins Hepatic portal vein Hepatic vein Urinary renal System Functions Main components o Kidneys pair o Ureters pair Hepatic Portal System 22 16 portal system capillaries veins capillaries Superior and inferior mesenteric portal veins 22 22 o Remove waste products from blood urea o Regulate the concentration of body fluids excrete ions excrete water Salivary glands 3 pair Liver partially digestive chemicals and partly wastes remove toxins and waste from blood modify food molecules storage o Urinary bladder single o Urethra single Kidney structure 26 3 o Capsule o Cortex granular o Hilus hilum o Medulla Pyramids fibrous Papilla Renal columns Renal lobe Renal calyx calyces Minor each papilla Major 2 or more minors merge Renal pelvis o Blood vessels 26 4 o Nephrons filter the blood make urine Renal artery vein Interlobar arteries and veins Arcuate arteries and veins Interlobar arteries and veins Renal corpuscle cortex Granular Collecting ducts pyramids Fibrous Ureters o waves of contractions push urine from kidney to bladder Bladder 26 10 750mL o Floor of pelvic cavity true pelvis o One way valves allow urine into bladder Urethra tube from bladder to exterior 26 10 o Female 1 2 o Male 6 8 Prostatic Membranous Membranous penile Reproductive System Function last organ system to become functional o Primary produce offspring o Secondary hormones maintaining and regulating function of reproductive system Female Reproductive System 27 10 o Location pelvic region and inguinal region o Ovaries primary sex organs produce reproductive cells gametes ova egg cells o Uterus embryo develops into infant o Vagina tub that connects uterus to exterior o

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KU BIOL 240 - Lecture notes

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