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Unit 4 BIOL 240Heart - Function: pump—propel blood through body - Double-circuit system o 2 pumps (left side/right side) o Systemic circuit: blood goes to most of tissues of bodyo Pulmonary circuit: blood goes to lungs - Chambers o 2 atria: small superior o Ventricles: inferior largeExternal Heart Anatomy (21.5)- Atria (R/L)- Ventricle (R/L)- Apex - Interventricle sulcus (anterior/posterior)- Vena Cava (inferior/superior)- Pulmonary trunk - Aorta - Pulmonary veins - Coronary sinus - Pericardium—parietal &visceral Internal Heart Anatomy (21.7) (21.9)- Interventricular septum - Valves o Atrioventricular (AV)  Right: tricuspid Left bicuspid—mitral o Semilunars Right: pulmonary valve  Left: aortic valve o Valve function: keep blood flowing one way, pressure operatedo Valve order (21.11) AV valves open, atria contracting—semilunars closed, all closed Ventricles contract, closes AVs, opens semilunars  Heart relaxes, all valves closeo Papillary muscles o Chordae tendineae—threads, valve to heart wall- Layers of Heart Wall (21.3) o Visceral pericardium (epicardium): outer layero Myocardium: cardiac muscle tissueo Endocardium: inner layer, connective tissue, epithelial layer - “Skeleton” of Heart: support valves - Control System—conducting system (21.12): modified muscle cells o SA node (sinoatrial): natural pacemaker  Causes both atria to contract o AV node (atrioventricular)o AV bundle (bundle of his) o Purkinje Fibers: spread out over ventricles Blood Vessels - Layers of wall (22.1) o Tunica externa: adventitia, outer tough connective tissue o Tunica media: media, middle elastic connective tissue and smooth muscle o Tunica intima/interna: thin layer of connective tissue and epithelial lining o Capillaries: single layer=intima Path of Blood through Body (22.2)- Hearto Arteries  Aorta  Elastic (large) arteries: media—lots of elastic tissue  Muscular (medium and small) arteries: media—mostly smooth muscle  Arterioles: smallest arteries o Veins: thin walls, less muscle, less elastic tissue, pressure low—partially collapsed Venules  Small & medium veins  Large veins  Superior &inferior vena cava o Heart (pulmonary pressure lower) o Pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated) o Lungs- capillaries o Pulmonary veins (oxygenated) o Heart (pulmonary pressure lower)- Capillaries (22.4): smallest vesselso Function: where exchange occurs o Size: so small that red blood cells barely fit through - Arteries: o Higher pressure o Thicker walls o Circular in cross section - Veins o Low pressure o Thin wallso Oval in cross section o Large veins have valves Respiratory System (24.1, 24.4) - Function: gas exchange—getting oxygen in and carbon dioxide out, breathe- Parts (following air path)o Nares/nostrils (external) o Nasal cavity o Internal nares o Nasopharynx (pharynx)o Oropharynx (pharynx)o Laryngyopharynx o Larynx o Trachea o Bronchi (bronchus)—pair split from bronchus o Lungs - Nasal Region (24.4)o Nose o Nasal septum o Turbinates = conchae o Olfactory membrane o Openings for:  Auditory tube Sinuses  Lacrimal sac o Paranasal Air Sinuses  Maxillary  Frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid  Temporal = mastoid air cells o Inward from nasal cavity:  Internal nares—nasopharynx—oropharynx—laryngopharynx—larynx - Larynx (24.7)o Vocal cords  Stretching and relaxing (change pitch—higher (stretch), lower (relax))  Holding breath ( closing glottis) - Trachea (24.9) - Bronchi (singular: bronchus): o Primary:1st branch off trachea o Secondary: 2nd branch off trachea (2 left, 3 on right)o Tertiary: (24.13) Bronchioles, alveoli (gas exchange occurs) & capillaries - Lung Structure (24.12, 24.10, 21.2)o Apexo Base o Medial = mediastinal & costal surface o Parietal (outer) & visceral (inner) pleura o Lobes & fissures Right - fissures: horizontal & oblique - lobes: superior, middle, inferior  Left- Fissure: oblique - Lobes: superior and inferior - Breathing Mechanism o Quiet: breathing at rest  Diaphragm: inflates lungs - Inspiration (inhaling): when diaphragm contracts--active - Expiration (exhale): diaphragm relaxes—passive - Lunch contracts due to elasticity o Forceful  Diaphragm and ribs  Raise and lower ribs  Inspiration: diaphragm + external intercostals --active Expiration: internal intercostals --active ………………………………..Swallowing (25.8)- Rapid pharyngeal phase - Slow esophageal phase Esophagus (25.1): transport only Stomach (25.10, 25.11)- Cardiac orifice: opening from esophagus - Fundus - Body - Pyloric region - Pyloric orifice and sphincter - Greater and lesser curvature - Greater and lesser omentum - Functions:o Storage ( allows to eat full meals) o Mixing and liquefying food material ( thick walls-smooth muscle) o Chemical breakdown of proteinsSmall Intestine (25.14) (smaller diameter) - Duodenum: o Absorption: food molecules moved into blood- Jejunum 8’- ileum 12’- lining (25.15)o villi Large Intestine—Colon (25.1)- ileocecal calve - cecum- pouch - vermiform appendix: (immune system)- ascending colon- transverse colon - descending colon - sigmoid colon - haustra (haustrum): pouches formed in large intestine - rectum- anus - Function: absorb water Digestive glands (25.20, 25.22) - Salivary glands- 3 pair - Liver: partially digestive chemicals and partly wastes (remove toxins and waste from blood,modify food molecules—storage) o Gall bladder o Common bile duct - Pancreas o Pancreatic duct Hepatic Portal System (22.16) (portal system—capillaries—veins—capillaries) - Superior and inferior mesenteric portal veins (22.22)- Gastic portal veins - Hepatic portal vein - Hepatic vein Urinary (renal) System - Functions: o Remove waste products from blood (urea) o Regulate the concentration of body fluids (excrete ions/excrete water)- Main components o Kidneys-pair o Ureters-pairo Urinary bladder-single o Urethra-single - Kidney structure (26.3)o Capsule o Cortex-granular o Hilus (hilum)o Medulla  Pyramids-fibrous  Papilla  Renal columns  Renal lobe  Renal calyx (calyces) - Minor-each papilla- Major-2 or more minors merge  Renal pelvis o Blood vessels (26.4)  Renal artery & vein  Interlobar arteries and veins  Arcuate arteries and veins  Interlobar arteries and veins o Nephrons (filter the blood—make urine) Renal corpuscle-cortex - Granular  Collecting ducts-pyramids - Fibrous - Ureters: o waves of contractions push

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KU BIOL 240 - Lecture notes

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