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Nuclear Family: husband and wife and their childrenExtended Family: relatives of nuclear familyNetworks of support: who do you turn to for support when your family isn’t an optionPersonal network: the people you interact with more regularly, friends, neighbors, classmatesFormal networks: doctors, social services, person network cant provide the next step is formalDivorceSingle parentingStep familiesJoint custodyKin custodyDual-earner familiesCohabiting parentsInterethnic and Interfaith familiesAdopted childrenSame-sex families1. Reproduction: birth control (reproductive assistance)2. Socialization and education: education has shifted to schools, state-mandated requirements3. Assignment of social roles: changes in gender roles, responsibilities of children, authority patterns4. Economic support: Industrialization5. Nurturance and emotional support: advances in medicineCollectivism:Orientation: cooperative and interdependentAuthority: hierarchicalRelationships: harmonious and cooperativeCommunication: context-specific and indirectLearning: through observation and imitationValues: sharing and helping, interactions with others, group loyaltyIndividualism: (US western cultures]Orientation: cooperative and independentAuthority: egalitarianRelationships: reciprocal and competitiveCommunication: direct and free of contextLearning: through direct instructionValues: decision making, achievement individually, personal choiceOne way to define it: process of making a series of decisions about how to socialize a childBoth in short term:Your baby cries?Your child does poorly in school?Long term:What do you do to assist your child in becoming an effective member of society?Universal aspects of parenting:Generally in all societies parents aim to:Ensure physical health and safetyPrepare child to develop behaviors to support self economicallyPrepare child to develop behaviors that adhere to cultural valuesForm= parenting cognition or practiceFunction= meaning or purpose of practiceAcross cultures, some parenting practices might differ in either form or functionPermissive:high in terms of acceptance, low in terms of control and demandschild outcomes:impulsivenessaggressionlow self-reliance/ self controlfailure to exploreAuthoritative:High in terms of acceptance, high in terms of demands and controlChild outcomes:High self relianceContentCooperativeExplore with self controlUninvolved:Low in terms of acceptance, low in terms of demands and controlChild outcomes:Low self-esteemPoor self controlCognitive, social, emotional and behavioral deficitsAuthoritarian:Low in terms of acceptance, high in terms of demands and controlChild outcomes:DiscontentWith drawnFearfulMistrustfulSelf Regulation:Best Outcomes: Parents who make reasonable demands promote sense of autonomy and responsibilityPoorer Self Regulation: Strict of lenient parenting doesn’t result in self regulationTheses outcomes are specific to American cultureWhat is competence?Being able to adapt in ones environment:Socially responsibleIndependentFriendlyCooperativeDominantAchievement orientedPurposefulBy preschool children show differences in competence:Attention-seeking in social settingsReliance on/ relationships with adultsRelationships with peersAbility to planBe flexible and responsiveProvide safe and stimulating home environmentsLimit interactions but be available when neededEngage children by asking questions, helping with activities, responding to discoveriesMaintain firm, consistent and age appropriate disciplineCentered on child’s needs, rather than parentsDevelopmentally-appropriate, reasonable expectationsUnderstanding normal growth patternsUnderstanding why children misbelieveProvides basic care and models self-controlSensitivity to Childs strengths, limitations and needsUses range of acceptable disciplinary practices:Guidance is preventive (instruction, modeling, reinforcement)Discipline is corrective (punishment, correction, extinction)Childs temperament influences best parenting practices“Easy” children:Positive moodRegularity in body functionsAdaptableLow to moderate reactivityAdapt well to various styles of child rearing“Difficult “children:Negative moodIrregular body functionsSlow to adapt, withdraw in new situationsIntense reactionsNeed consistency, patience, and objectivityParents need to be able to anticipate and manage behavior“Slow to warm up” Children:Slow to adapt after initial withdrawalLow activity levelsLow reactivityNeed moderate encouragement and patienceParents need to let them adjust at there own paceInterpersonal understandingCitizenship participationEnculturation: awareness of values, beliefs, norms, traditions, and understanding those of other culturesMoral and ethic characterPolitical ideology:Democracy: equal right and equal opportunityAll children should have equal opportunity for education1990: Educational excellence for all children actschool readiness and improved graduation rateassess competencies in the 4th, 8th, and 12th gradeaims for American students first in the world in science and math2001: No child left behindincrease accountability for states, districts and schoolsgreater choice in schools for parents and studentsflexibility for states and districts in how to use federal education fundingemphasizes reading, language, math and sciencepresent: common core state standards initiativehigh standardsEconomics:states typically determine educational policies and spendinglocal property taxes contribute to funding educationpoorer districts have fewer economic resourcesCulture:Traditional values passed through school curriculum and classroomHow should cultural diversity in schools be handled?Cultural assimilationMelting potCultural pluralismReligion:Public schools cannot promote any individual religionIntersections between church and statePledge of allegianceSchool prayerSex educationTheory of evolutionCensorship of booksCelebration oh holidaysBible as literature vs. ReligionEffective teachers:Provide an environment that promotes learningEngage students by involving them in learning activitiesCommunicate high expectations for studentsAdapt activities to the needs and abilities of studentsProvide guidance and support to ensure student successLink between school and studentsAuthoritarian:Leader- provides rules, micromanages, makes all decisions,Group: disconnected and hostile but productive, students are really productive but they are not very happy, not get along with peersDirect


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UMD PSYC 100 - Review Guide for Exam 2

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