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Chapter 1 - Introduction• Define psychology-Psychology is the scientific study of affect (feelings), cognition (mental processes such as thoughts) and behavior.-Psychology is the science of understanding human individuals’ affect, behavior and cognition.• Define the following theories and use each to explain any given behavior (e.g., why do humans shave hair from their bodies? Why do some humans bow when meeting other humans? Why do humans apply makeup and scented liquid to their bodies?)◦ Sociobiological TheoryFounded on patterns that, on average, maximized the reproductive potential of our species-Genetic chaos (mutations)-Thought and behavior can be inherited -Nature-Life is hard, resources are limited.-Fittest survive or reproduce=has to be one of those (keeps individual alive or their genes)-Much of what exists is/was adaptive -Human behavior= what was advantageous to us a long time agoExample: People like sweeter foods because many years ago when there wasn’t a lot of food, sweeter foods provided more calories. o Sociocultural TheoryOur thought and behavior is shaped by the culture we grow up in and the group’s norms. -Right vs. Wrong-Different cultures have distinct ways of showing attractiveness?Example:Why do people wear uggs?-People in our society have developed this belief that uggs are attractive and very stylish. People wear uggs to follow the social and group norm.◦ Learning TheoryBehavior/ Attitude is determined by experience of positive and negative outcomes.-Organisms are designated to seek pleasure or avoid pain.Example: Not planning to wear uggs, but then one day you randomly do. Based on if you were rewarded (compliment) or punished (insult) about wearing the uggs determines whether you will keep wearing them.◦ Social Cognitive TheoryThoughts, feelings and behaviors are determined by beliefs, attitudes (affect), expectations, goals and memories.-Going through a mental process and thinking of the outcome.Explain how sociobiology can be applied to explain differences in sexual behavior between males and females.In the sociobiological theory, one of the main goals of individuals is to reproduce and continue their genetic gene. Men and women will do things to their body to be more sexually attractive to other people, to reproduce and accomplish their goal of passing on genes. For example, women will wear perfume or wear make up to seem more sexually attractive to men, and men will shave their chest.• Describe Watson’s study on learning fear and Bandura’s study on learning aggression and explain how each provide evidence of learning theoryWatson’s Little Albert Experiment was done to prove that our thought and behaviors are not based solely on genetics, but on our environment and experiences. Watson performs an experiment where a baby is normally not afraid of furry objects, learns to be afraid of all furry objects, after a white rat is presented to him with a loud noise. The learning theory is seen in this experiment because the rat was presented in a negative way, which caused baby Albert to react by crying and being frightened. Bandura’s belief was that people could learn through observation. He showed a group of children a Bobo doll and had someone violently abuse the doll. When children were put in the room with the doll, Bandura found that the children reacted the same way as the demonstrator and even found new ways to violently hit the doll. Learning theory can be seen here because children saw what was being presented and saw it as being positive, so when they were in the room with the doll, they did exactly what they thought was expected and right. Chapter 2 - Research Methods• For each research method listed in Appendix A, provide the definition, and example, and explain the advantages and disadvantages of that method• Method Example Advantage DisadvantageNaturalistic ObservationA researcher unobtrusively collects information without the Research Psychologists for the National Highway Traffic Administration conduct seatbelt - The researcher does not influence the participants’ behavior, so it may be more - Not everything can be observed in its natural environment- Generally time-consumingparticipant’s awarenessobservations to determine whether use varies by age,sex, race, geographic location, and type of vehicle. Knowing this helps design programs that focus on those groupsand areas with the lowest observed use.representative than if people knew they were being watched- Can provide interesting descriptive dataand expensive- Behavior has to be interpreted by the researcher, and two researcher might see things differently- The researcher generally knows very little about the ‘participants’- Individuals do not have theopportunity to decide whetheror not they want to participateStructured ObservationResearchers can set up a situation and observe the participant’s behaviorDevelopmental psychologists create a situation in which a mother leaves her child in a room with a stranger fora few minutes. The way the child responds when she leave and returns tells the researcher something about the child’s “attachment style”- The researcher has more control of the situation and can keep most variables under control- The researcher can collect other information from the participants- The participant is aware ofthe researcher and may be influenced by the artificial situation or his/her beliefs about what the researcher expects to find- The researcher may still need to interpret the behaviorSelf-ReportParticipants are asked to provide information or responses to questions on a survey or structure assessmentEducational psychologistscan ask students to report their grade point average and what, if anything, they eat for breakfast on an average day. A healthy breakfast has beenassociated with better academic performance (Digangi’s 1999)- Surveys are inexpensive and efficient ways to collect a lot of data- They are easy to createand score- Computers allow data collection from participants all over the world- There are often differencesbetween what people really think and do and what they believe or want the researcherto believe- Participants may misinterpret a question or the answer choices- Participants may be unableor unwilling to answer the questionsControlled ExperimentResearchers create a controlled environment in which they can


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UMD PSYC 100 - Chapter 1 - Introduction

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