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Chapter 11Mood DisordersCommon characteristics – primary symptom is a disturbance in mood; inappropriate, exaggerated or limited range of feelings; feelings must be to the extremeDepression among college students – 14.9% are diagnosed with clinical depression; nearly half of all college students report feeling so depressed at some point in time that they have trouble function; nearly 80% of those with depression can make a significant improvement in their life with the proper treatmentSeasonal Affective Disorder – mood disorder; caused by the reduction in hours of daylight, triggers the increase in melatonin (sleep chemical), which causes us to be lethargic and sleepy; symptoms = sleeping much more than usual and struggling to get out of bed in the morning, excessive eating, carb craving, weight gain; expose yourself to light, exercise, vitamin DBipolar disorderBipolar I – must have at least one manic episode. Mania is the opposite of depression – it is a high feeling where the person feels euphoric and it can lead to feeling indestructible in areas such as personal finances, business dealings, or relationships. This high is often followed by an extreme low when the person realizes the consequences of their decisionsBipolar II – highs and lows, the highs are only hypo manic so they are not as intensePrognosis – can be difficult to diagnose due to it being similar to other mood disorders Dysthymic disorderSymptoms – depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not for at least two years. Under or over-eating, sleep difficulties, fatigue, low self-esteem, difficulty with concentration or decision making, feelings of hopelessnessMajor depressive disorderSymptoms – depressed mood, reduced interest in activities you used to enjoy, sleep disturbances, loss of energy, difficulty concentrating, and making decisions, suicidal thoughts Anxiety Disorders Agoraphobia – extreme anxiety and fear; anxiety about being in places where escape might be difficult of embarrassing, which may result in a panic attack Generalized Anxiety Disorder – general feelings of anxiety (mild heart palpitations, dizziness, and excessive worry) that are not related to a specific event and not as severe as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder – obsessions and compulsions; they may become disruptive to everyday functioning Panic Disorder – sudden attacks of intense fear or anxiety, usually with numerous physical symptoms (heart palpitations, rapid breathing, blurred vision, dizziness, and racing thoughts)Phobias – extreme fear or anxiety associated with an object or situation or avoidance; to be diagnosed the symptoms must be disruptive to everyday functioningPosttraumatic Stress Disorder – re-experiencing a previously experienced trauma through nightmares, obsessive thoughts, and flashbacks; may avoid certain situations, people, or objects that remind you of the traumatic event; increased anxiety in general with heightened startle response Somatoform – a mental disorder characterized by symptoms that suggest physical illness or injury – symptoms that cannot be explained fully by a general medical condition or by the direct effect of a substance, and are not attributable to another mental disorder Body Dysmorphic – preoccupation with a specific body part and the belief that this body part is deformed or defective, causes significant distress and impairment in functioningConversion – deficits in voluntary motor or sensory functions, which are not intentionally produced but which cannot be fully explained by a physician. There must be a significant impairment in functioning or a history of resulting medical treatment and not better explained by another disorderHypochondriasis – pre-occupation with fears of having a serious disease based upon a misinterpretation of bodily sensations. The preoccupation exists despite assurance from a physician that the individual does not have itPain Disorder – pain that causes significant distress or impairment in functioning that cannot be fully explained by a physicianSomatization Disorders – lack of explanation for the reported symptoms or for the severity of the complaints Dissociative Disorders – conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity or perceptionDissociative Amnesia – memory gaps related to traumatic or stressful events, which are too extreme to be accounted for by normal forgettingDissociative Fugue – caused by abrupt travel away from home (ex: war or leaving home after natural disaster); inability to remember important aspects of one’s life and the partial or complete adoption of a new identityDissociative Identity Disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder)– existence of more than one distinct identity or personality within the same individual; the identities will “take control” of the person at different timesDepersonalization Disorder – feelings of unreality, that your body does not belong to you, orthat you are constantly in a dreamlike state Psychotic DisordersSchizophrenia – a group of severe brain disorders in which people interpret reality abnormally. May result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking and behavior Positive symptoms – reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions- Delusions – beliefs are not based in reality and usually involve misinterpretation of perception or experience – most common symptom- Hallucinations - involve seeing or hearing things that don’t exist, although hallucinations can be seen in any of the sense. Hearing voices is the most common hallucination - Thought disorder – difficulty speaking & organizing thoughts may result in stopping speech midsentence or putting together meaningless words- Disorganized behavior – ranges from childlike silliness to unpredictable agitation Negative Symptoms – refer to a diminishment or absence of characteristics of normal function. May appear with or without positive symptoms - Loss of interest in everyday activity- Appearing to lack emotion- Reduced ability to plan or carry out activities - Neglect of personal hygiene- Social withdrawal- Loss of motivation Cognitive symptoms – problems with thought and processes. These symptoms may be the most disabling because they interfere with the ability to perform routine daily tasks- Problems with making sense of information- Difficulty paying attention- Memory problems Paranoid


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UMD PSYC 100 - Chapter 11

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